Rare photos of World war II.
More than half a million Japanese military, surrendered weapons on the territory of the Soviet Union in 1945, did not go home. Stalin used these people on a heavy construction work and production. This decision is not like the world community, but a favorable impact on the construction of roads and city architecture. “If we work as much in Japan as in Siberia, that would be rich”, – recalled the artist Yamasita Xizi on “Siberian captivity”.
The Japanese handed weapons, not counting themselves prisoners of war
In August 1945, according to Potsdam Declaration, signed by Britain, the US, China and the Soviet Union, Japan surrendered unconditionally. For the Japanese military, surrendered weapons, the Declaration was anticipated to return home and lead a peaceful life, with the exceptions of war criminals.
Japanese troops outside of their country, there were about 7 million people, about 600 of them were convicted for war crimes in front of 200 people sentenced to death. More than 500 thousand soldiers at the time of the surrender were in the territory of the USSR.
In the autumn of 1945 in the camps, and filtration camps, built by the Soviet authorities, it was noted an acute shortage of space, medication and food due to unexpectedly large number of incoming Japanese. Despite the efforts of the NKVD to create new camps, administration, security brigade, the situation remained critical. Temporary accommodation of prisoners of war was arranged directly in the outdoor tents, unsanitary and temperature regimes has led to increased morbidity and mortality. Typhus and lice were common among prisoners.
The Japanese were disarmed by the Americans and the Chinese were sent home.
Japanese soldiers did not know that the home will not let them. Thought that the construction of camps and the presence of security is for their own protection from the Chinese who feel a desire for revenge.
However, more than half a million Japanese were transported to the territory of the Union, contrary to the prescription of the Potsdam Declaration. The next 5 years Japanese prisoners of war in the work of the battalions engaged in heavy physical work in Siberia, died in captivity more than 16 thousand people.
How they lived in the “Siberian captivity»
New “prisoners” were placed in labour camps of Siberia and the Far East, the massive importation of prisoners occurred in the winter months. The first time the functioning of the camps required the goods were delivered not in full. Medicines, clothes, food still not enough. Worsen the situation harsh Siberian winter, to which the Japanese are not accustomed to. The weakest prisoners repatriated, it is possible to increase the proportion of “labour Fund”.
The Japanese actively used in industry and capital construction. The document governing the relationship between the prisoners and the camp leadership, “the Situation on the labour use of prisoners of war”, set the workday in 8 hours, at least 4 weekends a month.
In some cases, prescribed rules were made that helped to support people in normal physical shape. It was in the interest of the camp administrations, as helped to solve production problems due to cheap labor force resident camps fully pays for their livelihood and also bring monetary profit. But the organization of the working process differed from the requirements.
The working day usually lasted at least 10 hours, in some cases reaching 14, there are cases when the interval between meals was 12 hours. The time spent on the March to the place of work was not considered as “working”. Meanwhile, many battalions had to walk long distances — from 8 to 17 km were Installed excessive production plans that were not met because of poor prisoners and their unwillingness to work in captivity. In January 1946 the camps illegally interned by the Japanese labour standards are not complied with. By the end of the year through a variety of measures failed to improve these figures, one of them included a cash premium payment, promise to return home, the better nutrition. Also used different punishments for those who did not work.
With the help of the Japanese managed to achieve significant successes in the construction of the Baikal-Amur mainline
The Japanese building the railway Taishet-Bratsk.
The first train on the railway Taishet-Bratsk was launched in 1951. Taishet — the start point of the Baikal-Amur mainline, one of the largest in the world. In its construction the decisive part taken prisoners of camp No. 7, which was located near the town. Leadership sought to finish the construction as soon as possible, which contributed to the mistakes, lower quality work. Affected the result of poor prisoners who are often sick or just didn’t want to work. But the use of cheap labor have allowed significant progress in the implementation of the ambitious project.
During the construction of the road Tayshet-Bratsk prisoners worked 10 hours a day. Members of the battalions came to work in the same composition, which was in the Kwantung army, the unit was not disbanded, left and commanders. The prisoners made their clearings, built a mound under the railway, laid the railroad tracks. To work, the Japanese began before they organized a housing — first time they slept in tents, and later they were ordered to dig dugouts for ourselves.
The hands of the Japanese was built of Siberian city
In between 45 to 50 years, the prisoners of the camps were built many buildings that have shaped the modern look of the Siberian cities. In Irkutsk, the Japanese laid the first tram rails, building the depot. Erected building of the city hospital, apartment houses in Lenin street administration of economic city Committee on street Proletarian.
In Khabarovsk forces of prisoners of war built the stadium “Dynamo” and the landscaped Park of the same name. This list includes the ensemble on the main square. Lenin, who was crowned by the building of the higher party school. The architecture of the building was awarded the Stalin prize.
Higher party school in Khabarovsk
Another important object, the construction of which involved the Japanese theatre of Opera and ballet. Navoi in Tashkent. In 2015, the capital of Uzbekistan was visited by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, whose renovated building, changed the sign. The former Soviet sample reported only years of construction and architect. On the new plate there is an explanation that the construction of the building was attended by Japanese citizens, deported from the Far East.
The former prisoners returned home from the Soviet Union.