US sanctions: Cuban option for Russia

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Санкции США: кубинский вариант для России

The United States will not lift sanctions against Russia. Looks like it’s time to get used to the idea. But to add new bans can. This is illustrated by the example of Cuba living under the “stars and stripes” blockade since 1960. What surprises sanctions should Russia expect from US — in the material “Газеты.Ru”.

The United States began to pursue a policy of sanctions against Cuba soon after the change of government, when the new revolutionary government expropriated property of U.S. citizens and corporations. It was in 1959. And in 1960 the United States brought down to Cuba hail of sanctions. The sanctions mechanism is researched in details the all-Russian Institute of foreign trade (VAVT), Ministry of economic development. The report is available on hand “Газеты.Ru” that is previously considered, as the United States tightened the sanctions regime against Iran and China.

In July 1960, the United States adopted a law to reduce the import of Cuban sugar. Cane sugar was the main export of the country. But this measure had no effect. In the first years after the revolution, the state moved the majority of industrial and agricultural enterprises of the country. On the recommendation of Soviet specialists in Cuba was introduced Central planning. In the end, in the private sector fell to only 25% agriculture, 7% transport, 1% of the means of communication and less than 1% of the fishing fleet.

The law on trade with enemy

It is not surprising that the US sanctions against Cuba, encroached on the sacred — the property of American companies and private investors, is growing from year to year. In August 1960, the United States adopted an amendment to the law “On foreign aid”, whereby any state which will provide economic assistance to Cuba or to sell it weapons, would be deprived of American support.

In October 1960 the US imposed a partial embargo on trade with Cuba, prohibiting the export to the country of all goods except food and medicines.

And since February of 1962, US President John F. Kennedy officially established a total blockade of Cuba, linking the earlier resolutions on Cuba Act, the trading with the enemy (Trading with the Enemy Act).

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In October 1962 the ships of the Navy of the USA for a few months set up a naval blockade of Cuba. But the economic embargo on Cuba involved the prohibition of imports of all goods of Cuban origin and all goods imported from or through Cuba Cuba. Came under siege on the export to Cuba commodities produced in the United States, and even trade between Cuban companies and us subsidiaries in third countries.

Americans banned from traveling to Cuba, the use of the U.S. dollar in financial transactions of Cuba with third countries.

Amid this level of economic blockade on Cuba anti-Russian sanctions seem an act of humanity.

In favour of victims of Cuban terrorism

In 1966, the crackdown continued. The US government prevented American companies from any activity in Cuba without special permission. In 1992 was adopted the Law on the Cuban democracy (“Cuban Democracy Act”), within which any sea vessel, which had trade relations with Cuba, banned for 180 days to enter the ports of the United States that almost led to a ban on the export of food and medical goods to Cuba.

In the same year, U.S. President bill Clinton adopted a Law on the freedom and democratic solidarity in Cuba (the”Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (Libertad), or Helms-Burton, according to which penalties have increased in respect of enterprises that have invested in property expropriated from U.S. citizens or companies.

US law enforcement agencies jealously watched over violations of the Law Helms-Burton. From 1962 to 2013, more than 30 U.S. and foreign companies have paid fines for the maintenance of relations with Cuba to $2.4 billion.

A ban on remittances to Cuba in order to prevent access of the Cuban government to the U.S. currency.

The U.S. government also threatened to stop the allocation of resources to international financial institutions that provide loans or provide other assistance to Cuba.

In 2000, Congress decided to use “frozen” in the United States account of the Cuban phone company Empresa de Telecomunicaciones S. A. (around $120 million) for “the compensation of victims of Cuban terrorism”.

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“Liberty island” itself off

Then the Cuban leadership decided on a “retaliatory embargo”. The decision was made to disable a telephone line linking Cuba and the United States, which only increased the isolation of the “Island of freedom”.

In 2004, the administration of President George Bush again has tightened the embargo against Cuba, increasing the penalty for violations to 10 years in prison and up to $1 million fine.

In accordance with the new rules reduced the size of remittances to Cuba from Cuban-Americans, restricted them from travelling to Cuba (no more than once every three years), the duration of their stay in the country (over 14 days), and their expenditures in Cuba (no more than $50 per day).

Under brother Raul eased sanctions

In 2008, despite the resignation of Fidel Castro and the attempts of his brother and successor on this post of Raul Castro to start the economic reforms, the United States made a statement that they are not going to cancel a trade embargo. It was valid until 14 September 2015.

Then began a large-scale easing of sanctions. Although the point breaks were before. In the mid-90s, for example, Cubans were allowed to open a Bank branch in Western Havana.

And due to the devastating effects of hurricane Michelle (2001) American companies allowed to sell food to Cuba for humanitarian reasons. But Cuba has demanded to pay for humanitarian aid in advance.

2009 American Cubans can visit their relatives in Cuba every year and to spend up to $179 a day.

Tourists became a little, and Roma left a lot

Last year, the then-US President Barack Obama has restored diplomatic US relations with Cuba. But the trade embargo is still in effect. Moreover, under President Donald trump began the Renaissance of the sanctions regime. The United States intends to stop funding and direct business contacts of the American companies and individuals with the Cuban companies that are associated with the Cuban army and security forces. It is assumed that these Cuban companies control at least 60% of the country’s economy in key sectors — tourism, transport, communications and retail trade.

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