The world has recorded rapid economic growth in countries where previously the income was mostly low and medium. Now people in India, China, many countries in Africa and Latin America get richer. This significantly increased the consumption of meat and dairy products. In African countries, meat consumption has increased more than 2 times, and in Asia and Latin America – two-thirds.
To meet the growing demand, pastoralists intensified, and with it grew up and their interest in the use of antimicrobials. When the breeders give them? Some of them are used only for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in livestock and the other for its rapid growth and, as a consequence, to increase the income from cultivation.
Scientists are sounding the alarm. You cannot use unfounded antimicrobials. Regardless of what purpose they serve livestock producers, introducing them, they’re taking a big risk. The world has dramatically increased the number of animals to the bacteria in the body which is not acted antimicrobials. Along with the fact that they lose their effectiveness, they are becoming a threat not only to cattle but also for people who buy meat at the market after his slaughter.
In countries with low and middle income countries suffer surveillance. They do not control the use of livestock and poultry antimicrobials. Therefore, they can not determine the degree of resistance, i.e. resistance to their effects. In such States do not regulate when and how to give their cattle. They differ from those developed in the agricultural sector of the countries where constantly monitor the implementation of standards of epidemiological surveillance.
A team of scientists from the ETH Zurich, Princeton and Brussels free universities, with a study which reviewed “КазахЗерно.kz” he published a map of antimicrobial resistance in cattle in countries with low and middle income. Before that, they analyzed a huge flow of information and identify which cattle have developed resistance to such a simple food-borne bacteria like Salmonella, E. coli, Staphylococcus and Campylobacter.
Among the regions where the revealed high rates of antimicrobial resistance in cattle, turned the North-Eastern provinces of China, North-Eastern part of India, Turkey, South of Brazil and Iran. They could not cope with bacteria many of the commercially available drugs. In Africa while these regions is very small: Nigeria and livestock farms in the outskirts of Johannesburg, South Africa.
As it turned out, high levels of resistance appeared because of uncontrolled reception of antimicrobials. Breeders “hoisted” their cattle to Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Penicillin, Hinolan. As a result, they do not help in the treatment of infectious diseases.
Antimicrobials don’t work anymore!
The researchers introduced a new index to track the evolution of resistance to multiple drugs. We are talking about the proportion of drugs tested in each region with a level of resistance higher than 50%. Globally this figure is almost tripled for chickens and pigs over the last 20 years. Currently, one third of the drugs fails in 50% of cases of diseases in chickens, and one quarter in 50% of cases of illness in pigs.
“This alarming trend. It shows that drugs that are used today in animal husbandry, quickly lose their effectiveness, quoted Science Daily, citing the lead author of the study, This may affect the sustainability of the industry and probably the health of consumers.”
Of particular concern is the fact that antimicrobial resistance is increasing in developing countries. This happens against the background of rising meat consumption and easy access to them in veterinary pharmacies. The problem is global. It is pointless to deal with it in one country. Defeating the uncontrolled use of drugs in it, and immediately have to start fighting in the next, where in the rush to translate the activity to ravage the drugstore.
Why is the map incomplete?
A team of researchers from the ETH Zurich, Princeton University and the free University of Brussels conducted an analysis of thousands of publications published in scientific journals, and dozens of veterinary records that were lost in specialized committees. Based on these data made a map of antimicrobial resistance.
It is wrong to think that the map spans the entire world. Some countries in South America did not get it, because it is not found public data on animal sources. Scientists surprised by this, because in many African countries, on the contrary, too much attention is paid to data collection, but apparently not in South America.
World on a string
According to the study, a team of scientists has created its own web site with the hope that private veterinarians or the public service will share the data for their region. They hope that it will be popular among scientists, self-taught, who cannot afford the cost of publication in an academic journal, but they would like to share its findings publicly and to receive international recognition. In the end the data will begin to work for the good of the whole world. Scientists will be able to form a complete picture that emerged of the problem; figure out which regions have already suffered from use of antimicrobials and how to help them.
Meat production is growing in the world. Using a website will prove to the world that antimicrobials have a significant drawback. To fight with their uncontrolled use, you only need to return to sustainable methods of raising livestock!