One of the greatest achievements of Ancient India — the creation of the positional decimal number system with the application of zero — the same one which is used currently and we. In the days of the Harappan (Indus valley civilization, III—II Millennium BC, or civilization of Harappa and Mohenjo–Daro, — the name of one of the cities, near which excavations began) Indians, as scientists believe, was already considered dozens.
First, according to the ancient Sanskrit texts, to write numbers using words: a unit — “the moon”, “earth”; the two “eyes”, “lips”… And then there were signs of the numbers. But the most important was that the numbers were recorded positional, from the lowest level to the highest, so that one and the same number, for example “3”, depending on space, could identify and 3, 30, 300, and 3000.
The missing digits are marked with a small dot called “sunya” — “emptiness”. To evaluate the convenience of this system, the reader enough to write Roman numerals, for example, the number 4888 — MMMMDCCCLXXXVIII. It becomes clear why the Syrian Bishop and scholar North Sebokht believed that for evaluating the decimal system not enough words of praise. The outside world, especially the West, has treated the Indian opening unfair: the numbers that we call Arabic, the Arabs called Indian.
The most famous mathematician of Ancient India were living in guetzkow epoch (IV—VI century) Aryabhata. He systematized the decimal positional number system, formulated the rules for extracting square and cubic roots, solving linear, quadratic and indeterminate equations, problems on compound interest, finally created a simple and a complex threefold rule. The value of “PI” Aryabhata considered equal to 3,1416.
Aryabhata was an outstanding astronomer. He argued that the Earth moves around its axis, correctly explained the causes of solar and lunar eclipses, which caused sharp criticism from the Hindu priests, and many colleagues on science. From gurtskoj era we got a few astronomical treatises, finding in addition to the original development of the Indian scientists acquainted with Greek astronomy, including the works of Ptolemy. Ancient Indian astronomy and mathematics had a great influence on Arab science: achievements of Indian scientists recognized the great al-Biruni.
Significant achievements of Indians in chemistry. They were well-versed in ores, metals and alloys, were able to produce durable dyes — vegetable and mineral, glass and artificial gems, essential oils and poisons. In philosophical and scientific treatises, scientists have developed the idea that all substances in nature consist of “Ana” — atoms. High level of development reached medicine, especially medical school, known as Ayurveda — literally “science of longevity” (it is popular in our days). In the treatises of famous physicians Characi (I—II century) and Susruta (IV century) described the treatment with herbal and mineral medicines, diet and hygiene many diseases, including those for many subsequent centuries, Europe was only treated by “exorcism”.
Knowledge of anatomy and physiology was in Ancient India at a fairly high level: Indian doctors correctly explained the functions of many organs. At diagnosis and course of treatment, the doctor had to consider not only the physical condition of the patient, which was determined on the totality of the various indicators (pulse, body temperature, condition of skin, hair and nails, urine and so on), but the mental attitude of the patient.
Surgeons using 120 kinds of tools produced complex for its time of operation: craniotomy, cesarean section, amputation of the limbs.
Surgery to repair deformed ears and nose entered the history of modern medicine as “Indian” — this technique of European doctors have borrowed from their Indian counterparts only in the XVIII century. Existed in India and views on medical ethics: Charaka called his disciples “with all his soul to seek to heal the sick” and “not to betray them even at the cost of his own life.” Speech doctor, he instructed, should always be polite and pleasant, he must be restrained, considerate and always striving to improve his knowledge. Going to the home of the patient, the physician, pointed out to Charaka, must “direct your thoughts, mind and feelings to anything else, except to his patient and his treatment.” Strictly comply with medical confidentiality not to tell anyone about the patient’s condition, nor about what he saw in his house. In many Indian cities there were hospitals (mainly for the poor and the travellers), open at the expense of the king or the rich.
In addition to our own medicine “Ayurveda” has existed for plants and animals.
The most famous discovery of India belong to basic spheres of life, spiritual progress and to medicine.
In ancient times Indian scholars have reached a high level of mathematical knowledge. In the first Millennium the ancient math moved to a new level and took the higher level.
Scientists invented the decimal system of writing numbers with their symbols, which were subsequently modified and now known as the usual arithmetic of the number. Also they laid the basis of trigonometric calculations, decimal arithmetic varieties and methods of calculation.
Decimal number system was invented by Indian scientist Aryabhata. They also had invented the number “Zero” .
In India there are such Sciences as algebra and trigonometry.
The number PI was first calculated for Ludhiana. He also gave the advanced options that is now known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He did this in the 6th century, long before the Arab and European mathematicians
Quadratic equationswere created Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest number used by Greeks and Romans, it was 10 in the 6th degree, while in India it was 10 in 53-degree.
Existed weight, measuring range from shells with very precisely applied divisions. The basic unit of weight 0,86 grams, the basic unit of length – 6.7 mm.
Indian astronomers in the 2nd century BC established the phases of the moon, made a prototype of the modern calendar divided the day into hours. Hindus wrote astronomical treatises, put forward the theory of the rotation of our planet around its axis, calculated the reflection of the Moon in sunlight.
In the 5th century BC, hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart, C. E. Blacharachnia calculated the time in which the earth goes around the sun. This time was 365.258756484 days
In India was invented by largest unit of time, Kalpa – the time from the birth of the universe to its complete destruction. This unit is very close in value to the period of life and, according to the pulsating theory of the universe is 25 billion years
The art of navigation was founded on the river Sindh 6000 years ago. The very word navigation is derived from Sanskrit word “Nava gatih”. There was invented trigonometry — based navigation in the open sea.
Rich in India and achievements in medicine. In ancient times originated in India the science of longevity (Ayurveda),which today is based on Tibetan medicine. Indian doctors studied the properties of herbs, the influence of climate on humans, considerable attention was paid to hygiene, diet, various psychic techniques.
. Ayurveda, the medical school — the oldest in the world, if not the oldest, it was founded more than 2500 years ago. The Indians correctly understand the purpose of each body successfully treated many diseases. An important feature of the Indian treatment was that the doctors in the diagnosis, not only evaluated the physical condition of the patient, but also his mental attitude. Surgeons owned more than 120 tools, and did a fairly complex operation.
Many surgical tools used in surgical procedures are still.
It hooks, probes, scalpels, syringes, retractors. The first mention of operations on the human body with the help of such tools found in manuscripts dated one thousand years BC
Ancient medical manuscript of “Sushruta Samhita” describes the technique of certain operations, results descriptions of the tools and surgical practices. To cure the disease use medicines based on herbs and other plants. Ayurvedic principles in the manufacture of drugs and cosmetics applied to modern products.
No less famous among the people, striving for perfection, enjoys yoga culture that allows you to attain the perfection of body and mind. Figures of people seated in well-known yoga poses has been found in the settlements of the ancient peoples, and their age according to experts achieves 6 thousand years. Yoga nowadays is considered as two main areas – spiritual practice, and system of physical and breathing exercises.
In medicine were invented ways of water treatment procedures and some complex surgeries. It is known that medieval Indian doctors were able to remove cataracts, sutures on the internal organs and to do a craniotomy.
The appearance of the stirrup in Indian cavalry became one of the most important discoveries, invented in India in the second century. This has enabled the military to apply reciprocating blows and precise lesions of the bow. At that time the saddle was fitted with two robust strap with rings at the ends and the rider, getting on a horse, put the big toe in one of them.
The invention of Indians of chess in the V-VI century, became part of human culture throughout the world. Initially the game looked different and was called “Chaturanga”, which means “four arms”, which included the now common playing field of 64 squares and 32 pieces. But unlike the usual game, the number of players was 4, and the moves of the figures asked dice. The modern name in Farsi sounds like “Shah Mat” which translates to “the Shah is dead.” Historians believe that the first games has been more than a thousand years.
In India first appeared dominoes, cards,
The first tanks and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra, Western India. Under the leadership of king Rudradaman I in 150 BC was created an artificial river called sudarśana (beautiful)
The world’s first University was founded in Takshashila as 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century ad
The Indians knew how to make dyes, glass, poisons and perfumes. They are well versed in the ore, alloys and other minerals.
In agriculture widely developed crafts and trade. This is indicated by the large number of weights found during the excavations. India was probably the first country to have mastered the cotton. Cotton textiles were India exported over several millennia.
They have created the most wonderful language in the world — Sanskrit — gave rise to the greater part of the idioms of the East and the Indo-European countries.
They invented hand to hand combat,as well as tea, wine, candy, tea cake.
Science Mathematics. To engage in grandiose building, you need exact knowledge. Ancient India, whose achievements in this area are very large, developed decimal counting, numbers that are mistakenly called Arabic, and which we use, was invented in India. It also developed the concept of zero. Scientists from India have proved that if any number divided by zero, the result will be infinity. Six centuries before our era they were known to the PI. Indian scientists involved in the development of algebra, solve linear equations, how to extract square and cubic roots of numbers, calculate the sine of the angle. In this area far ahead of all left Ancient India. Achievements and inventions in the field of mathematics is the pride of this civilization. Astronomy. Despite the fact that they didn’t have telescopes, astronomy was in Ancient India a place of honor.Watching the Moon, astronomers were able to determine its phase. Before the Greeks, the Indian scholars came to the conclusion that the Earth rotates around its axis. Indian astronomers divided the day into hours. Medicine. Ayurveda, which contains basic medical tenets, originally used for ritual purification of priests, who dealt with the untouchables. There went all kinds of cleansing of the body, which are nowadays widely used, because it is very polluted environment.
It is considered that contribution of ancient India is limited to the sphere of the Humanities, especially religion and philosophy. In fact, no other civilization, perhaps, not surpassed India in these areas. Scientific knowledge presented by the sages of antiquity, covers a wide range of Sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, metallurgy, biotechnology, Geology, botany, meteorology, gemology, medicine, etc.
Indian thinkers belongs to the palm discoveries in many fields of knowledge. The invention of the zero, the measurement of the number π, the wording of the Pythagorean theorem, the theory of the rotation of the Earth around the Sun, the law of gravity, knowledge of medicine and surgery clearly indicate the richness of the scientific heritage of India.
In ancient India originated the game of chess, which was based on the mathematical basis of the fact that he knew the Indians in ancient times. The dominant position was occupied by astronomy.
A great astronomer Arya Bhatta (sometimes spelled Aryabhata) proved that the Earth revolves around its axis, long before this discovery shocked Medieval Europe. The ancient Indians knew that the earth revolves around the Sun and not Vice versa, as was claimed by so-called scientists of the middle ages Europe.
With the Vedic period of Indian history is linked to the unique medical system of Ayurveda (science of life) , the methods and treatment which are still recognized and are effective. In ancient India, there were ethics and philosophy.
All this intellectual advantage in the field of science and culture was formed over many years, following in line with the uninterrupted cultural continuity for centuries.