Who was greater among the “traitors” — writers and students of the College or the officers of the KGB, GRU and foreign intelligence?
I think, in the circles of the intelligentsia of special interest published in the “Novaya Gazeta” article Leonid Mlechin, “the Committee of state security has…” (see
Show more… no. 98 dated 6 September) — created 50 years ago in the KGB Directorate “against the ideological diversions of the enemy.” In practice, this was the secret political police, which punished dissent and dissidents. That is, could for the joke to land. As told to me by academician Nikolai Nikolayevich Pokrovsky (6 years in the Dubrovlag for participating in clandestine Marxist circle), on the same paletsine served time photographer filmed in his hometown is not the most, shall we say, presentable areas. In its judgment stated: “Photographing far-fetched facts”
To me the article Leonid Mlechin struck by the phrase from the report of security officers “Checked the entrants in the Literary Institute named after M. Gorky, and exams is not allowed some people — they received incriminating materials.”
Then there was the guys dream is to get to the legendary House of Herzen, in the literary Institute, the only one in the USSR. Passed creative competition arrived. And they interview not given test papers. Without explanation. Sent back home. Put in a humiliating position in front of friends for years to come. Because there, in their towns, it is necessary to explain something. Welcome to received the required score in the entrance exams… And then what do you say?
Therefore, we define clear boundaries of the conversation. So as not to spread. The disposition of this:
— were students of the literary Institute, the writers obviously suspected of deviation from the ideological line;
there were people in uniform watching over them, designed to stop and prevent damage to the Home.
And move on to statistics.
As far as I know, from 1960 to 1991, before the collapse of the Soviet Union, according to article 64 of the Criminal code “Treason” is not convicted of any one graduate of the literary Institute, writer. Was defectors. The most famous — Anatoly Kuznetsov, a graduate of the literary Institute, the Executive Secretary of the Tula branch of the Union of writers. He remained in London in 1969. From-for what there was a big scandal. And Arkady Belinkov (studying at the literary Institute in 40 years, the arrest of 12 years in the Karlag, the Amnesty in 1956, remained abroad in 1968) and Sergey Urgent (defector 1977).
Others, or expelled or forced to leave. Solzhenitsyn was arrested and the plane was sent to Germany. Went abroad, Joseph Brodsky, Georgi Vladimov, Vladimir Maksimov, Victor Nekrasov, Vasily Aksyonov, Sergei Dovlatov, Vladimir Voinovich (in his time in his College did not accept), Naum Korzhavin (went to College in 1945, in 1947, arrested and sent into exile in 1956, rehabilitated and restored in the literary Institute and graduated in 1959), Anatoly Gladilin (studied at the literary Institute in 1954-1958). Note: they are all civilians (civilians), the military did not give the oath, and, in principle, nothing criminal in their departure to another country was not.
Our country got better on their check-out (expulsion)? Or, on the contrary, the homeland to have lost something? The issue was discussed. But the facts are indisputable.
Take the bulwark of the state (as commonly believed), the KGB, the Main intelligence Directorate of the General staff (GRU, military intelligence), foreign intelligence (until 1991 — the First chief Directorate of the KGB) and other similar services. All of the following persons — were given the oath, they all charged and convicted (in person or in absentia) on charges of “Treason”.
The General-the major of the Main intelligence Directorate of the General staff of the Ministry of defense. D. the Poles for more than 20 years was a CIA agent passed 19 Soviet spies-illegals and 150 foreign agents.
Military intelligence officer N. Chernov gave the CIA thousands of documents about the activities of our residencies in USA, UK, Germany, France, Japan, Italy, Belgium, and Switzerland.
Captain of the KGB, Yuri Nosenko passed several double agents, and also confirmed the information about the listening devices in the Embassy of the United States.
Colonel foreign intelligence hero of the Soviet Union A. Fist gave the FBI information about the KGB agents in new York.
The captain of the foreign intelligence Oleg Lyalin completely uncovered spy network in the UK.
The illegal foreign intelligence Y. Loginov worked as a double agent for the CIA.
Colonel foreign intelligence O. Gordievsky… Well, everyone knows it, the West is called “the second largest British intelligence agent in the Soviet special services.”
But first what? Of course, Colonel of the Main intelligence Directorate of the General staff of the defense Ministry Oleg Penkovsky. It is considered the most effective agent of the West, and the volume and importance of its information — exceptional in the history of the actions of hostile intelligence services against the Soviet Union.
Hereinafter, for brevity, only titles and the names of Soviet officers who defected to the “potential enemy”.
Technical military intelligence Colonel Vladimir Vetrov, Sergei Illarionov, Colonel Vladimir Konoplev.
KGB: major V. Shamov, Lieutenant Vladimir Makarov, Deputy head of the Moscow Department of the KGB major Sergei Vorontsov, a member of the counterintelligence V. Yurchenko, major M. Butkov, senior Lieutenant A. Semenov, B. Stashinsky, A. Oganesyan, N. Grigoryan.
Military intelligence: Colonel P. Popov, Colonel Sergei Bokhan, a member of the counterintelligence Western group of forces V. Lavrentiev, Colonel Vladimir Baranov, major A. Chebotarev, E. Sorokin, major Filatov, Colonel G. Smetanin, N. Petrov.
Foreign intelligence: major A. Golitsyn, major S. Levchenko, major Vladimir Rezun, an officer of the Soviet military attaché in Hungary Vladimir Vasiliev, a fellow at the Washington residency I. Kochnev, O. Morozov, Lieutenant-Colonel, Colonel V. Oshinko, Colonel Leonid Poleshchuk, Colonel Boris Yuzhin, a member of the residency in Morocco A. Rich, Colonel V. Martynov, L. Zemenek Colonel, major Sergei Motorin, Lieutenant Colonel G. Dumpling, V. Sakharov, V. Piguzov Colonel, Colonel Vladimir gundarev, J. Cherpinsky, Colonel V. Fomenko, E. Runge, Lieutenant Colonel, major Sergei Papushin, major V. Mitrokhin, major Vladimir Kuzichkin.
The list is not full, from public sources, and only 30 years, from 1960 to 1991. But still comparable: two graduates of the literary Institute, remaining abroad, few writers, either compulsorily or voluntarily leave the USSR, and dozens of graduates of all courses and universities, KGB, GRU, defense Ministry, violated the oath, the sacred military oath to the Motherland, condemned for treason, for working for foreign intelligence.
And who on earth is betrayed the Motherland?
In 1989, the 5th Directorate of the KGB was renamed the office for the protection of the Soviet constitutional system. Now — 2nd Service of the FSB (the service for the protection of the constitutional system and combat terrorism). For some reason 2-I Service, according to press reports, leading the operational support of the “economic” case of the Director Serebrennikov. “Work on creative unions” continue?