A previous article, “Language of slaves, the language of the masters”, has raised a wave of discussions that Mama do not cry.
Here I object: “Latin — continuous liabilities, it’s also the language of the slaves? The language spoken by the greatest Empire of the ancient world — the language of the slaves?”
But with this, I would argue. That the greatest Empire of the ancient world spoke Latin.
So I now live in the territory, which a few centuries ago were of the same Roman Empire. See, here on this same ground on which I go now, just a few centuries ago walked the real legionaries of the Roman Empire.
Eastern, not Western, however, the subject matter, but it does not change, the Empire is the same, with the same traditions, manners and customs.
So the official language of this Empire was Koine, a synthetic language, which were all the proceedings in this most Eastern Roman Empire, written in artistic, scientific and religious literature, and communicate part of a large Empire. The word “Koine” became a household word to denote such languages.
And the population living in the everyday life of the Koine is not used. Well, that is only used when you need to talk to a merchant, who came from some Jews. It is a historical fact. This is a more recent past of the land on which I live.
But the Imperial customs, you know, they are very strong! I know that the first thing I did Greece, freed from the Turkish yoke? She came up with a separate language for official purposes.
Why ask? Yes, because it is supposed to! Because that’s what was in Byzantium! And Greece — after all, the heir of Byzantium, isn’t it?
Yes, still any half a century ago in the same Greece was (surprise!) two languages: Katharevousa, is a synthetic language created by linguist Adamantios Korais, which was carried out all the paperwork and write all the official papers; and Demotica, which is spoken by the people.
You know, as much as a century and a half in Greece, officially there are two languages, one for communication with the government, and the other for communication of citizens with each other. Do you think any one of them replaced the other? And here figushki!
Only in 1976 Katharevousa was abolished the volitional order, and then only in the Wake of the revolution that toppled the colonels.
But the fact of its occurrence and national bilingualism it is rooted in the same Roman Empire, where it was commonplace and a necessity.
Now, to what I tell it.
Latin bears all the signs here of such artificially structured synthetic language, like Greek Katharevousa. Latin is Koine Zapadnodvinskiy Empire, which was carried out clerical work, and which served as a language of interethnic communication.
It was a perfect synthetic language, by its very nature designed to be the language Franca of the inhabited world. Well structured, simple and clear. Latin was so good as the world nadasaka that continued to perform these functions, even half a Millennium after the fall of Western Rome until the 19th century entering a mandatory system of classical education throughout the Western world.
By the way, and Koine (called “modern Greek language”) is also taught in schools in the early 20th century.
As to living languages the communication of the Roman Empire, Latin is apparently a very indirect relationship.
Latin, Koine and Katharevousa are not the only synthetic languages.
Modern French — this is also pure Koine. On its extraordinary structure, and “correct”, which could not occur spontaneously, draws the attention of anyone who starts to learn French.
Still only a few centuries ago, no French and did not exist. A large part of France spoke the language of “OK”, which in the modern world known as “the Catalan”, “Provencal” and so forth. the Smaller part of France spoke in tongues “Oil”, which is a modern Walloon. Modern French was established on the basis of Oil, by its gradual gentrification, it was the language of high society, nobility, law, and educated segment of the population. In the middle ages he did not even have clear national borders, it said, and the English nobility, and French, and a large part German. And then he descended to the people and became the first international language of communication in France, and then the single state language. He still carries the traits of artificial beautification. Look how numbers are formed in French. To come up with this, it was necessary to have at least medieval University education!
Modern Italian is also Koine. After Italy became a unified country only in the 19th century thanks to Garibaldi. And before that it was a conglomeration of small principalities and free cities, each of which spoke their own language. Let similar languages, but different. Now shamefully they are usually called “dialects of Italian”. “Neapolitan dialect”, “Venetian dialect”.
But let’s look at the same one-line quote from our father these three “dialects”:
Fance avé ‘o ppane tutt’ ‘e juorne lièvace ‘dièbbete comme nuje e ‘a ll e llevamme ate.
Ranne oje u pane nuorro e tutti i juorni, perdunacce i rebita nuorri, cumu nue perdunammu i rebituri nuorri
Dunàtini ogghi lu nostru panuzzu pirdunàtini E li nostri dèbbiti, comu nuautri pirdunamu a li li nostri dibbitura
Well, until the pile, the same in Italian
Dacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano e rimetti a noi i nostri debiti, come noi li rimettiamo ai nostri debitori.
The inscription reads “forgive us our trespasses, as we leave our debtors.”
Do not you think, gentlemen, that the difference between these “dialects” will be maybe more than between the Russian and Bulgarian languages? And it’s still living languages, which is still actually spoken in everyday life.
The Italian then immediately stands out. It is much more easy to learn, has a clear and coherent structured grammar, and very basic articulation, it has a very limited set of sounds (compared to other “dialects”) that are easy to pronounce, without breaking the language. And it is a huge opportunity for the expression of subtle thoughts.
And this is probably the only synthetic language, the names of the creators of which are known to us.
Its founder was not someone, and himself of Dante, who has published several scientific papers in which he wrote about how you can modify and organize “popular dialects”, to make “noble language”, which he called the “volgare illustre” — “the noble tongue”.
Petrarch took the idea of Dante and implemented it in practice, based on the Florentine language. He not only created the “volgare illustre”, but also to demonstrate the beauty and power of crafted language, wrote on it his famous sonnets.
It was the first literary work written in that language, which later became a single Italian. Petrarch has infected the idea of his friend Boccaccio, and he also began to widely use the “volgare illustre”. And soon “the language of Petrarch” became a literary norm. His knowledge was mandatory for every educated person. But the Italian people for this language is not spoken.
When, after the unification of Italy, the question arose about a unified language, the question of how it should be, not even standing. All civilized people knew the language of Petrarch and spoke on it. Great Milanese writer Alessandro Manzoni brought the language to perfection, as close to his people.
But the Italian people still speak other languages.
Believe it or not, but just some hundred years ago, much of Italy, the Italian language is not understood. Made Italy speak only Italian Mussolini. Only the dictator it was!
And after all this you want to convince me that the Roman Empire spoke Latin? I think that the language spoken by the people even in the neighborhood of Rome, corresponds with the Latin, about the same as modern Italian with Neapolitan.
All of Italy is now littered with written monuments, which nobody can read because they are not in Latin.