In Russia were abandoned almost 100 million hectares of agricultural land. The area of orchards has decreased three times, — twice. In many private farms have neither goats nor sheep, nor cattle. Tens of millions of hectares of once fertile soil and all belongs to God knows who. The reason for this devastation — vzyatkoemkoy the ground clearance and low efficiency of the agricultural sector.
To a shocking conclusion experts of the Ranepa after analysis of the preliminary results of agricultural census revealed a huge area, which according to the Rosreestr, the number of the eared cornfields, pastures, and in fact abandoned, turned into wasteland or, at best, absorbed by the forest.
“At an agricultural map of Russia revealed a serious “white spots”, i.e. areas in which agricultural land is unassigned or assigned to the land, which the census could not be found”, — stated in the expert monitoring of the Ranepa devoted to the results selhozperepisi. A census conducted last year, Rosstat. Account was taken of the agricultural land and owned or leased by farmers and private farms.
Drones do not notice the destruction
The total area of unused agricultural lands, conclude the experts, was last year’s 97.2 million hectares (44% of all agricultural land of the country), although the official estimate of abandoned farmland less than half – only about 40 million hectares.
That is, the census has failed to find the owners and users of approximately 50 million hectares, although these lands officially listed by the farmers.
“How can this be done in the presence of modern information technologies and at constant space shooting all areas, hard to say. As to answer why the tax didn’t help “Rosstat” to find the owners, because these lands have to collect taxes? Whether these lands products?”, perplexed Vasily Uzun, chief researcher, Center for agro-food policy IPEA Ranhigs.
The census found that farmers use for 43.3 million hectares of land, not 28.8 million, as the official statistics of Federal state statistics service.
No pigs, no goats, no sheep
For the private households (LPH) of the population, according to the data of Rosreestr, fixed 77,3 million hectares of land, and census takers found only 14.3 million hectares. however, as explained in the Rosstat, the census was prepared thoroughly and it spent 14 billion rubles.
Experts Ranepa also indicate that the real area of private farms occupied by the different cultures, much less data of Rosstat.
But that’s not all. Approximately 90% of private farms have neither pigs nor goats, nor sheep, nor cattle. However, these smallholders still account for as farmers, and this is a serious mistake.
At the time of the census was considered that Russia has 222 million hectares of farmland. But census takers found only 142,2 million hectares, i.e. 64% of all lands.
Without a bribe land not issued
According to the methodology of FAO (food and agricultural organization of the UN), when conducting an agricultural census should cover at least 95% of agricultural production. Rosstat followed this recommendation, but 30 million hectares of any documents not assigned to the farmers. In 1990 this area was 8.3 million hectares. Extension of derelict land experts explain two reasons.
The first is economic, not profitable. The second is institutional: to get from state land, you need to spend a lot of money on its registration.
“The sale or lease of the state is owner of all costs of design owned parcels passed on to future users. This scheme is likely to difficult to implement without the use of corruption schemes”, — stated in the monitoring.
This same problem was identified by the experts of the Center for strategic research (CSR) Alexei Kudrin in the report “Land for people”. The land in Russia did not become a full-fledged economic asset either for citizens or for business, the asset is used extremely inefficiently. On the contrary, this resource has become a barrier to sustainable economic growth and has become a source of corruption, noted in the CSR. One of the main conclusions of the report —
the state has not created a system of guarantees of rights to land to a bona fide purchaser. Any owner of land may be faced with the fact that his plot is in the area, limiting the possibility for the use of land.
The census also showed that the current statistics for certain types of land is also different. For example, according to Rosreestr, the area of the deposits (arable land, which for many years are not handled) and assigned to the farmers, for the beginning of 2017 was 3.6 million hectares, and according to the census it is almost 3 times more than 10.1 million ha. of Existing agricultural area of perennial plants according to the census was the opposite 3 times less than what ongoing statistics showed, pasture area — in 2 times.
Just not reserved for farmers or simply draw was 28.1 million ha of arable land (29.2% of the total), 13.7 million hectares of hayfields (57.1%) and 41.9 million hectares of pastures (61.3 per cent).
Rosstat will have to recalculate again
Over the past 10 years has increased the acreage of all crops especially commercial crops, Russia beats its own record wheat harvest, but decreased the acreage of potatoes, vegetables, the area of perennial plants, decreased the percentage of arable land sown has increased the number of cattle per 100 hectares of farmland, experts say Ranepa.
But whether this information is reliable, regardless of the sign “plus” or minus? According to estimates of the Chairman of the Duma Committee on natural resources, property and land relations Nikolay Nikolaev, the area of the disputed plots in Russia is 3.7 million hectares. “we Have, according to the register, almost one and a half times bigger than really are,” — says Nikolaev. The owners of the land at a loss and do not understand how the documents can be trusted. Conflict situations arise throughout the country.
Experts of the Ranepa, noted that in the current statistics clearly excessive in relation to the actual acreage of potatoes, vegetables, fruit plantations and dairy cattle population. Also, after the 2006 census, Rosstat will have to significantly reduce these indicators for 2016 and previous years.
Will have to be adjusted and the number of agricultural organizations for ten years (2006-2016). According rosreestra, it grew by almost 12 thousand, according to the census has declined sharply, from 59 thousand to 36 thousand
With about a third of census farms agricultural activities are not carried out, and, most likely, will disappear in the coming years. The census showed that in ten years, agricultural companies have lost a third of farmland, 21.1% of the arable land, about half of hayfields and pastures
“In absolute figures of the company APK in the ten years after the first census lost 42.2 million hectares of farmland. Some of them passed to farmers (15.4 million ha), some in private farms of the population (3 million hectares according to the census, 11.5 million — according to the data of Rosreestr), and the remaining land joined the wastelands”, — stated in the monitoring.
Rosstat recognize that information, keymaze the Federal registration service and the one obtained in the selhozperepisi, disagrees very much. “But census data is the most current and accurate information. In the database of the Federal registration service can be the bankrupt company that owns the land only on paper, but in reality, their land could either change the status and move to the forest Fund or to remain a wasteland,” explains the Deputy head of Rosstat Constantine Likes.
He cites an example from his own life: owned a few years 11 hectares of land, was not able to handle it and, becoming the Deputy of the state Duma, gave these acres are donated by neighbors. But they never issued it to yourself.
The lack of adequate statistics on land Fund of Russia is a real problem for business and government, experts say. How the government can build a strategy of economic development, to plan incomes and costs, to collect taxes, if not has reliable information about the most important resource – land? A hundred years after the October revolution, proclaimed the land national property, and 25 years the new Russian history to regain private property in land was not enough to restore order at least in the view of the earth.
LDPR leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky in 2009 offered hard solutions to the problem of vacant land. Need to tighten the legislation governing the compulsory withdrawal of land from negligent owners. If these rules finally make, Russia will be less of vacant land, he said. “The land must benefit. This is the heritage of all people, the earth gives us the opportunity to obtain oxygen, food, on the ground we build housing, finally, is the place to stay. You can’t just go and deaden land,” — said the head of the liberal Democrats.
To solve the problem of “white spots on the map”, if not a census and inventory of agricultural land,
Alexander Petrik, academician of the RAS, acting Director of the all-Russian Institute of agrarian problems named after A. A. Nikonov. “The problem is that inventory will have to spend… will not say Exactly, but several times more than the census. But will be removed in a declarative character of the registration of land and real estate,” says Petrik.
According to him, his departmental leads and the census of agriculture. The Ministry called otherwise derelict land – land that can be put into circulation without any significant investment. Such land, according to the Ministry of agriculture, more than 20 million ha. In the accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation conduct their count – 65 million hectares of land in Russia are used for other purposes. And most likely most of these lands are abandoned.