Scientists have turned back the clock


Researchers have shown that for a quantum interconnected qubits (quantum bits) are spontaneously violated the second law of thermodynamics.

An international group of physicists managed to reverse the course of time for the pair of interconnected particles. Researchers have shown that for a quantum interconnected qubits (quantum bits) are spontaneously violated the second law of thermodynamics, according to which isolated systems, all processes go only in the direction of increasing entropy. This was reported in the Preprint, published in the repository

According to the second law of thermodynamics, time goes in only one direction in which macroscopic systems increases the disorder (entropy). For example, heat is transferred from hot to cold bodies, but never flows from cold bodies hot. The unidirectionality is explained in the statistics, as conditions of disorder, which can be body, much more than ordered. The appeal of the arrow of time, i.e. the transition from disorder to order, therefore, much less likely.

However, in quantum systems, the transfer is considered feasible. It is shown that for a system consisting of two interrelated (correlated) qubits, which are particles with half-integer spin, the arrow of time is able be reversed. Scientists using nuclear magnetic resonance, in which atomic nuclei absorb electromagnetic energy, “heated” both qubit to different temperatures, changing the energy of their spins. After this physics experimentally tracked changes their temperature and thus determined the direction of heat flow.

As the qubits were taken of the nucleus of carbon-13 and hydrogen in chloroform solution. The solution was placed inside a superconducting magnet that generates a static electromagnetic field directed in the longitudinal direction. The system of interconnected particles manipulated with transverse RF fields. Scientists have traced the process of transferring energy between the nuclei at the scale of a few milliseconds, which is much less than the time during which korrelirovannoe broken.

The researchers found that in the condition when the particles are not interconnected, the arrow of time is a normal direction. Cold qubit heated and the hot cooled. In the case where the qubits were correlated, that is quantum entangled, heat spontaneously flowed in the opposite direction. According to scientists, this phenomenon should also occur in systems consisting of a larger number of interconnected particles.


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