Representatives of the Russian branch of Greenpeace estimated that the renovation process of “Khrushchev” in the capital will cut down a total of 2.7 thousand hectares, virtually every fourth tree. The greatest, almost catastrophic, damage will be applied to the most eco-efficient districts “old” Moscow. “SP” has decided to discuss with experts in the environmental community question of the impact of the upcoming “century restructuring” on the biosystem of the capital.
First of all, we tried to find out how tangible will be announced losses for the capital, and to what negative consequences it may bring. In particular, how it may affect the people suffering from pulmonary diseases, and characterized by deviant behavior.
Traditionally, the view of the natural consequences of the renovation of the experts of the question, as, indeed, among all Muscovites, were diametrically opposed.
Some believe that this problem is greatly exaggerated.
Trees, of course, a pity, — the Chairman of the all-Russian ecological movement “Green Russia” Konstantin Kurchenkov. But, first, the construction time is different everywhere. Secondly, by law the city government, the developer, received a felling ticket and justifying the uprooting of trees, simultaneously committed is each destroyed to plant two new, identical in size!
The expert emphasizes that Greenpeace, by and large, organization-brawler promoting human discontent and speculate on any events, including the manipulation of facts for the sake of budget utilization. Therefore, to build the issue with the trees in the overarching category of not worth it.
Approximately in the same spirit expressed and ecologist-consultant Vadim Rukavitsyn:
Even if the calculations are correct, and will really be destroyed 2,700 hectares of green space, it is much less than a quarter, because the area alone Moscow parks more than 16.5 thousand ha. not including boulevards, squares and green areas of the courtyards of the universities. The construction in the parks is prohibited by law FZ-33 and five-story building is just not there. And new homes should not encroach on the territory of especially protected natural territories, which are these objects.
However, there are other opinions.
— It is necessary to understand, — says the Deputy Director of the Center for the preservation of wildlife Love Yakubovskaya, that newly planted trees in the first years of his life do not produce additional oxygen. Relatively speaking, how much of it they produce, and spend as much on your growth and development. That is not to say that the new planting at least to some extent compensate for the lost green complex.
And if the previous experts are of the opinion that people with lung diseases and abnormalities in the psyche of the impending cutting down of plantings of special harm will not bring, Yakubovskaya emphasizes that in the capital, where already today complex situation on pulmonary diseases, the destruction of 2,700 trees to the city is comparable to a bullet wound to the lung for humans. That is actually means a long recovery and disability for the rest of my life, well even if mild, but can become much more serious.
However, Vadim Rukavitsyn with such conclusion does not agree.
When building new houses will appear on the trees, which will be immediately to cope with its function, he says, because the air filtration and purification of gases occurs through the soil and root system of the tree and the soil the young trees use the same as adults. Oxygen will also be missed by those same parks are considered the lungs of the capital. Time from demolition to new construction, given the speed of modern construction projects, it may take several years, but the new landscaping must fully compensate for the loss.
But as it turns out, only one destruction of trees environmental problems of the capital in the result of the upcoming renovations will not be limited.
According to, in particular, the Director of “CROS Technology” Vladislav Wielicki, this process will entail a whole bunch of troubles. Among them:
the increase in the dust content of atmospheric air;
the increase in the load on the system supplies of resources and sanitation;
changes in the wind;
deterioration of air in the city;
the creation of new buildings “wind shadow”, resulting in concentrations of smog;
change the local micro-climate, increase in humidity and temperature;
stress, increased morbidity and mortality among the resettled people, and not “overjoyed” by relocation of the neighboring houses.
This, according to experts, only the obvious aspects. But there is also an implicit negative aspects. For example, the increased likelihood of loss of population, infrastructure attacks, similar to those when the fall and winter of 2015 has been undermined by the power lines in neighboring Crimea territory. By the way, these attacks, explains Wielicki, much more exposed and recognized as such by the emergencies Ministry, energy Ministry and other ministries and agencies.
— In case of power outages in the winter (blackout type cascading accident in 2005) — he argues, — will be unfrozen the heating system of the city. As a result, the proportion of residents who die in new buildings, will be higher than the demolished homes where there is gas supply, and, consequently, the opportunity to warm up around the plate. That while the major cities of Russia do not become victims of large-scale infrastructure attacks, compared to which the terrorist attacks in the subway will look like childish pranks, is a consequence of the residual reliability of the Soviet system, supplies of resources in cities, and a temporary lack of attention to the topic of destructive elements. If we talk about renovation, it still has some handicap on the construction, application of new technologies, housing that allows you to save the lives of resettled residents of Moscow. But, as you can see, in this direction have not done absolutely nothing.
Love Yakubovskaya also advises to think about the fate of homeless cats:
The so — called “renovation” threatens the city with a rat infestation, because the result of mass demolition of old buildings under the ruins will kill thousands of these animals. Because of the peculiarities of the psyche of these animals from the noise of the construction equipment they do not run away and score in the far corners of the cellars, than doom yourself to death. The number of cats and rats in cities are always in balance, so if one disappears, the abundance will come.
Naked blocks of concrete boxes with a few sticks of gardening “-soleninskoe” and prowling rats everywhere — so, in her opinion, will look after the site renovation.
And this despite the fact that more “old” ecological problems of megalopolis have not gone away.
So, Vadim Rukavitsyn, referring to the Mosekomonitoring, said that the capital permanently fixed elevated concentrations of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and other gases. Also, the city is heavily polluted soil, water in rivers and lakes, there are huge problems with noise and vibration, as well as locally manifested a strong electromagnetic field.
Another sore point, according to Konstantin Kurchenkova is, of course, garbage collection:
— Every resident of the city per year on average constitutes about 130 kilograms of waste. They need to sort, because most of waste is big income! Initiated a programme to introduce separate collection of garbage, but until sorted into different waste containers collect one garbage truck, this is blasphemy.
Of course, some attempts to solve the problem, according to environmentalists, are being taken. Kurchenkov, for example, draws attention to the efforts of the authorities, as the reconstruction of streets and the extension of pedestrian areas, which aims to let. And Rukavitsyn speaks well of the construction of new highways with noise screens to reduce local emissions from vehicles and noise. As an example, the worries of the authorities about the population of the city, he cites the situation with frequent dismantling or transfer of the towers with the communication stations, when they for some reason set too close to the houses.
Still, overall, the capital of Russia is still far from being truly comfortable from the point of view of the eco-metropolis. Because, says Vadim Rukavitsyn, ideally in a city should not be exceedances of maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants in water, air and soil. The apartments should not be noisy, and next to every house should be a large landscaped area for walking. Also in its line should be at least industrial enterprises, energy for the city should be developed as harmless way, and the garbage should be sorted and where possible recycled.
As a guide, which would have to be Moscow, as one of the European capitals, environmentalists call Stockholm. He pays attention Vadim Rukavitsyn, became the first city in the European Union, received the title of Green capital (European Green Capital Award). Since the program of environmental measures it appeared in the 70-ies of the last century, said the expert, today the Stockholm appears to us not only with huge green spaces, but with the ambitious plans of the “founding fathers” for a full transition to alternative sources of energy.