A curious note.
Ancient Chinese astronomers called Mars “the Fire star”, and scientists for a long time will “burn” curiosity about some things related to the red planet. Even after dozens of spacecraft have been sent to Mars for research, many questions remain unanswered. Learn about the biggest mysteries of Mars that have yet to unravel.
1) Why does Mars have two “persons”?
Scientists for decades have been puzzled by the difference between the two sides of Mars. The Northern hemisphere of the planet is smooth and low – it is one of the most smooth and flat places on the planets of the Solar system. Potentially, it could be formed because of the water that once splashed on the Martian surface.
At the same time, the southern half of Mars – rough and all indented crater. It is about 4-8 km higher than the Northern part. Recent studies suggest that such differences between the southern and Northern sides of the planet could be linked to a gigantic cosmic body, which could be a time to fall on the surface of Mars.
2) What is the source of methane on Mars?
Methane – the simplest organic molecule – was first discovered in the atmosphere of Mars spacecraft “Mars Express” European Space Agency in 2003. On Earth most of the methane is produced by living organisms, such as cattle digesting food. It is assumed that methane is stable in the Martian atmosphere is only 300 years old, but who or what could generate this gas so long ago – remains a mystery.
Still, there are ways of methane formation and without the participation of living organisms, such as volcanic activity. New program of the European Space Agency’s ExoMars, which will be launched in 2016 will examine the chemical composition of the atmosphere of Mars so scientists could learn more about the Martian methane.
3) are There on Mars liquid water?
Although a large body of evidence indicates that Mars once had liquid water, whether it exists today – remains a mystery. The atmospheric pressure on Mars is very low, about 100 times less pressure on the Ground, so it is unlikely that liquid water could persist on the surface of the red planet. However, the long dark lines that we see on the surface of Mars, implying that salt water streams can flow through it every spring.
4) whether the oceans on Mars?
A large number of Mars missions showed that Mars has lots of evidence that once on the surface splashing water. It seems that there were oceans, the network of valleys, river deltas and minerals that could form water.
However, modern models of the early Martian climate can not explain how it could exist on a planet such high temperatures to form liquid water as the Sun warms the planet’s surface is much weaker. Maybe some of the characteristics of the surface can be formed not by water, wind or other mechanisms? However, everything points to the fact that ancient Mars was still warm, and on its surface could be water, at least on one side thereof. However, some scholars argue that ancient Mars was cold but humid, although this theory still disputed.
5) is There life on Mars?
The first spacecraft successfully landed on the surface of Mars – Viking 1, NASA first tried to solve the mystery of whether on the red planet life, however, so far the answer to this question is not received. Today, this issue is of concern to Mars researchers around the world. Viking failed to detect organic molecules such as methyl chloride and dichloromethane. However, it later emerged that it was the earthly impurities that were part of the cleaning liquid in the preparation of the apparatus on the Ground.
The surface of Mars is quite suitable for the emergence of life on it, as far as we know, as there are appropriate conditions: suitable temperature, radiation, excessive dryness and other factors. There are numerous examples where on Earth there is life even in a harsh environment, for example, in the far North, in dry soils of the Antarctic Dry Valleys and very dry in the Atacama desert in Chile.
Where there is liquid water on Earth – life is everywhere, so scientists believe that if Mars has water, there must necessarily be life. When scientists answer the question whether there is life on Mars, they will be able to shed light on a number of other questions that remain unanswered today, for example, may or may not life to emerge in other parts of the Universe.
6) Life on Earth came from Mars?
Meteorites that have been discovered in Antarctica, came to our planet from Mars. They broke away from the red planet during its collision with other space objects. These meteorites have structures that resemble structures created by terrestrial microbes. While many studies suggest that it is likely that these structures obtained by chemical means, the debate in the scientific world continues. Some researchers believe that life on Earth was brought to Mars long ago, and it could move here just meteorites.
7) Can the earthlings to live on Mars?
To finally answer the question of whether or not there is life on Mars, people can fly there and find out.
In 1969, NASA had plans to 1981 mission for sending humans to Mars to establish a permanent Martian station to 1988. However interplanetary travel with humans was not so easy task both from scientific and technical point of view.
For example, significant difficulties were: ensuring the supply of food, water, oxygen, eliminating the harmful effects of microgravity and radiation, reducing to zero the probability of fires, and so on. But most importantly, you need to psychologically adjust to the person that he spent many years will be far from Earth and from the real help. It is also difficult to imagine how you can organize a touchdown, work, life on an alien planet and return from there back to Earth.
However, the astronauts have long been dreaming of such flights. For example, the volunteers agreed to live for a year on a spaceship. It was the longest space flight simulation, which was ever developed, the aim of which was to reproduce in terrestrial conditions, which can be a mission to Mars from beginning to end.
Volunteers willing to go to Mars – a great many. Perhaps, once this mission become a reality.