Against the clear success of the industry of agriculture in Russia, expressed in the report, the growth of production and exports of agricultural products, the quality of life of residents of rural areas is not improving, and even degrades. This is reflected in the negative demographic dynamics, which is quite natural in the context of universal trends of world urbanization, moreover, is in decline and the destruction of social infrastructure in villages. And it’s hospitals, schools, transportation, water, energy and everything else that is already an essential element of the life of any person.
Income from the increase in the sales of agricultural products, including for export are held by the peasants, settling incomes in agricultural holdings and in large companies, the accounts of traders and middlemen in the retail trade, the enterprises of logistics and transport and many other agencies that serve agriculture. But the money is not returned to the village and not invested in social rural segment. This situation can cause irreparable negative consequences in the medium and long term, undermining base while increasing agricultural production.
This says Igor Abakumov – host of “agricultural policy”, associate Professor Timiryazev agricultural Academy, answering the questions of “Moskovsky Komsomolets”. IA “КазахЗерно.kz” publishes a number of his thoughts. How to live-can the growers outside of the field mill? Behind the pounds of harvested grain and is a welcome gain of piglets we often forget about the living conditions of the villagers, that every citizen is known and still available from the cradle. In General, rural social sphere. This topic has been identified leading of the conversation.
The SOS signal over Russian village hangs for a long time, with the 60-ies of the last century. There is not just sparsely populated, and unpopulated area. Not only Siberia and the far East. I often go to Peter. The degradation of the village is happening before our eyes. Sooner along the highway flashed boarded-up hut. It seemed, from time to time there will be better times and the owners return. Then the huts began to fall through the roof – and this is a death sentence – says Igor Abakumov. There are villages between the two Russian capitals – the center of the country – hundreds of…
The agricultural policy of the government over the last 20 years of rule led to such a history. Indicative of the situation with the collection of dead wood, which has accumulated in the forests, perhaps millions, of cubic meters. It was allowed to gather the peasants for firewood ovens, but subject to certain lengths and diameter dry branches. Erupted on this topic, the debate speaks to the level of understanding of the rural power problems.
Since Stolypin’s reforms in agriculture every 10 years there is a radical change. The seizure of landlords ‘ land, “Land – to peasants!”, then collectivization, repression, industrialization, war, virgin lands, state farms, privatization, agricultural holdings… All at the expense of rural residents, but not in their interest.
The volume of production does not mean people. Despite the fact that we have outlined to reduce import dependency, rural areas are struggling. Under Lenin, and Brezhnev about people thinking only utilitarian, as a person function. This ideology comes directly from Karl Marx, who wrote: “the Farmer is a strange character for a civilized mind.” His Covenant professed Lenin, Stalin, the Communist party, the Democrats, the liberals, themselves not realizing conductors whose ideas they are, in fact, are.
Man-tractor, man-combiner, the man-milkmaid… Everything was built and created for the tractor as a human function. He was valuable because today is sitting behind the tractor, and tomorrow, if necessary, for a tank. It needs to be saved for a possible war. A man who lives in the village, to keep with tradition and order, was uninteresting to the state.
The colonial attitude of the ruling elite toward the rural population has led to the fact that in 2016 the birth rate in the village for the first time became less than in the city. Two to three, three to four children in the village was the norm. The village has always been famous as a provider of strong recruits for military service. Remember the iconic films of those years about Maxim Perepelitsa or Ivan Brovkina.
The staff of the Federal research centre for agriculture and rural development (former vniiesh) has recently conducted a study on the methodology of the international labour organization. Results to put it Mildly, disappointing. The unemployment rate in villages is twice higher than in the city. If to drive off from Moscow to the other regional center, where to find a job is problematic, the village to do it twice as difficult. The city’s unemployment officially at 4.42%, in the villages 10. Officially.
In the village a lot of latent (hidden) unemployment. Working in your garden, if possible – from the rich neighbor. In fact, unemployment there is at 20-25% minimum. A person eats, or from your garden or from sosednego cellar. Wages in rural areas from the city level is 60%. For comparison: in 2017 in Belarus amounted to 71% in Armenia and 68%, in Kyrgyzstan – 61%. There are regions where the salary of 15 thousand, 10 thousand and even 7 thousand.
If we want to “hit” on poverty in the country, as Putin calls us in the may decrees, or rather just start with the village? 27% of the villagers live below the poverty line. This is the official data. Informal is much higher, because extensive research has not been undertaken. The peasants did not have enough money even for food. I’m not talking about shoes and new clothes. But these percentages don’t know what Central sewage and water supply treatment plants. They have the facilities in the yard, the water in the well. From 1995 to 2017 from the village left 2.5 million people. According to the forecast of Rosstat, the process accelerated, by 2036 the rural population will decrease by 5 million people – cited figures Igor Abakumov.