The history of International women’s day.
For the occasion of 8 March, International women’s day, there are clashes with the police, the beauty of women and free sex.
It seemed that the legend of the creation of the 8th of March is as old as the world and known to all. But many know only the official version. On the eve of women’s day we collected all the stories, facts and myths that somehow relate to the creation of International women’s day.
Already in ancient Rome there was a women’s day, which celebrated matrons. On this day matrons – freely born women who are married, received from their husbands gifts was surrounded by love and attention.
However, and slaves too received gifts. And besides, the mistress allowed the slave in this day of rest. Dressed in the finest clothes, with fragrant wreaths on their heads, Roman women came to the temple of the goddess Vesta the guardian of hearth and home.
Since then, it took a lot of time. Women decided to change their lives, to fight for equality with men.
Traditionally, the history of March 8 as a holiday referred to 1857. So, this spring in new York held a mass demonstration of women weavers who came to Central streets of the city and demanded equal wages, shorter hours and the right to participate in elections. The women then worked 16 hours a day, unlike men, who have already achieved the 10-hour working day. The demonstration was later dispersed by the police. But women were very dedicated. They were not afraid to fight with mounted police, and made barricades in the streets.
About this event for the first time in 1955, told the French newspaper L’humanité. It is noteworthy that this edition is called the first women’s strike March, “March of empty pots”.
However, spending in 2014, a deeper study of the French journalists proved that the demonstration of women weavers in new York March 8 – no more than fiction. Most likely, the authors were inspired by the history of women’s protest and she’s just filling the picture, giving it spice and zest.
At that time women really started to fight for their rights. But still there was no question that the formidable procession to go to new York and to provide resistance to the police. Women’s protests were held locally in the factories and the demands of women to their superiors often were articulate men.
The second and more real reference to the history of the holiday March 8 takes us in 1910. In August of this year in Copenhagen at a major Congress met the Second international – so called Association of socialist parties. One of the activities in the framework of the Congress was a women’s conference. And the star of this meeting was the German Clara Zetkin, who gave an impassioned speech on women’s rights and proposed to establish international women’s day.
Historians have never agreed whether Clara Zetkin, Jewess. Some sources claim that she was born in the family of a Jewish shoemaker and the other a German teacher. Go figure. However, the desire Zetkin associate 8 March with the Jewish holiday of Purim will not shut up.
So, one version says that Zetkin wanted to connect the history of women’s day, with the history of the Jewish people. According to legend, a beloved Persian king Xerxes, Esther, saved the Jewish people from extermination by his charms. Xerxes wanted to exterminate all Jews, but Esther convinced him not only to kill Jews, but to destroy all their enemies, including the Persians themselves.
It happened in day 13 of Arda on the Jewish calendar (this month is at the end of February – beginning of March). Praising Esther, the Jews began to celebrate Purim. The date has been moving, but in 1910, she had it on March 8.
The idea Zetkin and her friend Rosa Luxemburg, on this day, women of all countries are required to come for meetings and remind about their rights and problems. However, Congress had not yet specified the date of International women’s day, but decided that his conduct must in the spring.
In 1911 first ever international women’s day celebrated on March 12. A year later, in 1912 – in may.
Every year the number of countries that have joined the celebration of International women’s day grew. In 1914 it was celebrated with rallies at the same time already in 8 countries – including, in tsarist Russia and the United States.
At the same time the Clara Zetkin around the world has become a symbol of women’s struggle for rights. In 1919, she joined the Communist party of Germany. She was familiar with Lenin and Krupskaya. Published the magazine “Women’s issue” devoted to women’s issues. Zetkin died in 1933 in Soviet Russia, where I went once to power in Germany the Nazis came.
Its contribution to international women’s day has made women the former Soviet Union. So, on February 23, 1917, tens of thousands of women and men took to the streets of Petrograd, to participate in demonstrations against the First world war.
The protesters first demanded peace and bread, among other things – the improvement of working conditions and women’s equality. Four days later, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated. The provisional government granted women the right to vote.
It should be noted the fact that at that time Russia lived according to the Julian calendar, but after a year switched to the Gregorian. So on February 23 became the day of 8 March.
In the USSR, this day was of great importance, seeing in it not just Women’s day but also the day of the beginning of the February revolution, which overthrew the monarchy. Already since 1921, the 8th of March in the Soviet Union became an annual event. It was agreed to celebrate in memory of the participation of women in the Central demonstration.
Many historians agree that March 8 – a common political campaign. In the early twentieth century across Europe protested women. And to draw attention to himself, even they Breasts didn’t have to show. It was enough just to go through the streets with placards on which were written the socialist slogans, and attention is assured. And leaders tick, supposedly progressive women in solidarity with us.
The woman is human too! – the hero of the famous film “White sun of the desert”.
In the early twentieth century, this concept became very popular in the young Soviet Republic. In 1913 Alexandra Kollontai published his Manifesto “the New women”. There she said that the woman of the XX century should not be restricted to home and family: she’s an independent person.
Since 1920, Alexandra Kollontai led a special women’s Department of the Central Committee of the RCP(b). His task was to fight for equal rights with men, the elimination of female illiteracy.
Men did not fail to respond in its Patriarchal spirit, and all brought to unfulfilled sexual desires.
As for this woman, it is obvious that its revolutionary enthusiasm – not that other, as mediated by the satisfaction of her nymphomania – wrote about Kollontai her contemporary sociologist Pitirim Sorokin.
In 1975 Women’s day on March 8 acquired a formal status. In particular, he was recognized as the holiday and decided to celebrate annually the United Nations (UN).
While March 8 was a national holiday in many countries – including in Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Cambodia.
It is noteworthy that in some countries, e.g., Laos, China, Macedonia, Madagascar and Nepal it is celebrated exclusively by women. For all the men in these countries March 8 is a normal working day.
Ukraine and other former Soviet States celebrate on March 8, according to the tradition learned from Soviet times. However, for example, in Tajikistan it is now called Mother’s Day. In Turkmenistan and is not celebrated on March 8 to 2008. In this country, women’s day was combined with the Navruz national holiday of spring.
However, according to recent polls, almost half of the population of Ukraine consider March 8 a reason to do something nice for loved ones women and celebrate his 82% of Ukrainians. And only about 10% of Ukrainians believe international women’s day, a relic of the Soviet past.