They are on the verge of extinction.
In Europe there are many small Nations in the status of national minorities. But even in the 70-ies of the last century some of them were persecuted, they tried to assimilate and deny their cultural identity. In some cases, it was possible, but some small Nations, no matter what is preserved, and brought his uniqueness to the present day.
Officially not existing: enishi
Enishi who call themselves “nomadic” or “white” Gypsies, notable primarily in that are a rather social group, not a separate nation – the origin of the descendants of the disparate groups, mostly German-speaking socially disadvantaged element.
Enishi known in Europe since the XVIII century. They are often confused and mixed with the Gypsies, which later assisted enichem bad service: in Nazi Germany they were persecuted and killed just like Jews and Gypsies, accusing of all mortal sins (even eating carrion), and the Swiss authorities until the 70-ies of the last century has taken measures of forced assimilation for jenisch and the elimination of their culture.
Themselves enishi aware of themselves as a separate nation, although officially recognized as a national minority only in Switzerland. Only a part of them adheres to the nomadic way of life, and the true number is not known (there are about 10 million in Germany and 30 in Switzerland). They can be found throughout Western and Central Europe. Anissi jargon developed as a dialect of German, in 1997 he received in Switzerland, the status of “language without territorial binding”.
Earth, which unites: Gorani
Living in the Balkans, the Gorani (Gorani or Goran) combines, first and foremost, residence – historic district Mount as well as the language. Here, in a place where Kosovo, Albania and Macedonia, was born an amazing accent, which mixed Serbian, Albanian, Macedonian, Turkish and Arabic. The Gorani are descendants of the Islamized Slavs (scientists are still arguing, and why the Illyrians, Bulgarians, Macedonians), you can find among them ethnic Turks and even Gypsies. Besides Muslims live here and Catholics, and Orthodox. But they all consider themselves Gorani, one people, calling themselves “nashinci” or “nashinskie”, and proud of their origins and customs.
The main occupation of the Gorani – agriculture, but in addition they are known as skilled artisans and famous throughout Europe as a fine pastry chefs and bakers. In regard to the strength of this small but proud people, different sources give numbers from 35 to 60 thousand.
People without a state: the Saami
This Finno-Ugric people, the indigenous people of Northern Europe, owes its name to Lapland, which means “the land of the Lapps”. The Lapps the Sami have called not only the Scandinavians, and Russians; they were considered shamans and sorcerers who can command the weather to conjure the wind and the Lapland seemed dark and mysterious country somewhere on the edge of the world. In fact, the main occupation of the Saami was not witchcraft, and hunting, fishing and reindeer breeding, they lived in communities and led a semi-nomadic life, every 20-30 years, moving to a new location.
Currently, the Sami people live in four countries: Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Although Lapland has never been a single territorial unit, and the Saami and have not created their own state, this nation has officially recognized the flag and anthem, their rights enshrined in law in each of the countries of residence. Among them can be seen as the Lutherans and the adherents of ancient shamanism, they speak different languages (actually Sami, there are about a dozen), but all of them are distinguished by a high national consciousness and commitment to their culture. The population of this nation is from 60 to 80 thousand.
Disappearing with the language: Livi
This small Baltic-Finnish people currently living in the territory of Latvia. The word Liva means, rather, “fishermen” or “coastal people”; it is from the Liv has received the name of Livonia. Indeed, humor often settled on the sea coast or at the mouths of large rivers. This people were known as skillful hunters and fishermen (and sometimes still pirates: stoking the fires on the shore, they lured passing judgment on a Bank, then to profit extraction), and eventually was almost completely assimilated by the Latvians. Before world war II the number of Livonians did not exceed a thousand men.
According 2015, in Latvia at that time lived just 167 people of this nationality. In 2009, he died Viktor Berthold, the last Liv, whose Livonian language was native. Currently, enthusiasts do everything that language has not disappeared completely (it is studied in universities, textbooks, etc.) and Liv culture has the support of the state.
Ancient, blond, original: VOD
Another Finno-Ugric peoples – the indigenous inhabitants of the Leningrad region. Once quite numerous, vagane (another name of this nation), known since the VII-VIII century, because of various reasons gradually came down from the stage of history is affected by numerous wars that have swept this land, and assimilation of the Slavic tribes. Interestingly, in different sources you can find numerous mentions about the outstanding beauty of the women of this nation – and of the fact that the majority of this water was a very light, white or Golden hair (by the way, existed once to the custom before the wedding, the bride cut the braid and passed it to the groom as a sign of subordination to the girl’s future husband). They also talked about the past militancy of this nation, fast and furious language, the ability to quickly learn something new at the same time without abandoning their own traditions.
Currently, VOD refers to endangered peoples of Russia: according to the census of 2010, their number amounted to 64 people.