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05 DECEMBER 2014
The invention of steroids, novocaine, traffic lights and open heart surgery — “the guardian” says that he made to the scientific world by black scientists.
A geek in a skirt: ten contemporary women scientists who changed the world
The scientific community has eaten not one dog on discrimination: anti-Semitism in Soviet science has deprived us of a galaxy of prominent scientists and discoverers, women were not allowed in universities and laboratories, and black scientists, if they fall in the highest circles of the scientific community, it is a huge effort. Instead of wasting precious time on research and experiments, scientists have fought against racism and discrimination. “The guardian” has made a selection of ten black inventors, mathematicians and chemists who changed the world.
the astronomer, geodesist
Astronomer, farmer, politician and surveyor Benjamin Banneker lived in Maryland in the eighteenth century. He was born to a freed African women, Mary and a former slave from new Guinea Robert. Showing an unprecedented interest in science, Banneker worked independently studying the basics of physics and geography here and there. At 22, the young scientist was already designed clocks and other interesting mechanisms and helped neighbors to package site. Later he became famous for his series of astronomical almanacs, which were commercially successful. In addition, Banneker kept up a correspondence with the father of American democracy Thomas Jefferson, discussing the issues of slavery and racism. Now, however, say that the merits of the scientist exaggerated on the background of the struggle for equality, but what his life and work was amazing (primarily because of the time in which they occurred), no doubt.
Charles Richard Drew
The founder of the world’s first blood banks to devote his life to medicine. He was lucky to be born not only talented scientists, but also to finish two universities, McGill in Montreal and Columbia. In those days, black students in US universities. Charles has developed a system transfusion and storage of blood, and saved thousands of soldiers ‘ lives during the Second world war. Besides the United States, the program also successfully implemented in military medicine in the UK.
A lot of effort drew gave to convince authorities of the United States that the black blood suitable for transfusion, including white patients. Despite this, very long in the blood banks of the USA white and black blood were stored separately.
Daniel Hale Williams
Cardiologist Daniel Williams — the second person in the history of medicine, which in 1893 had a successful surgery on the pericardium — the outer shell of the heart (the first was Henry Dalton). The decision about operation was made on an emergency basis: the patient was taken to the hospital late in the evening, died. Williams decided to operate early in the morning.
He graduated from the University of Chicago with honors, but then the laws of the state of Illinois did not allow black physicians to work in public hospitals. Without thinking, the doctor founded his hospital Providence, and later on its basis established a school for nurses, which were taught mainly by the black population of Chicago. The hospital became the first desegregating medical facility in the country. He founded the Association for African American doctors, and at the end of life it is still recognized at the state level and became honorary President of the National Association of surgeons.
(born in 1954)
the medic and estrogenic
Dr. Chappell began his career as an assistant Professor at the University of Nashville. Showing remarkable ability in the natural Sciences, he successfully got a job as a biochemist in the laboratory of Chapelton in 1963, where he made several important discoveries that helped to accelerate the pace of space exploration. First, he noticed that even a simple green organisms such as unicellular algae, produce oxygen. This knowledge is used now to ensure the life of astronauts coming into orbit. In addition to this, Chappell has been studying the response of living organisms to light and their interaction with the environment. His research has allowed to develop that technology, which now NASA is trying to use to search for life on Mars.
(born in 1954)
The winner of Goldoni Bella (annually awarded prize for outstanding achievements in the field of high performance computing) and prize of the Institute of electrical and electronics engineers in new York were pushing mathematical and technological science forward entire life. Born Nigerian created the Connection Machine is a family of supercomputers that can calculate those values, which the human brain does not reach. On the basis of the Polytechnic University of Massachusetts, Emegwali worked in the team, which was intended to create an artificial intelligence, but their development is nowhere in this area has not led, so the scientists switched to high-precision calculations.
(born in 1942)
Bath was born in Harlem in a family of African immigrants. Her father had a column in the local newspaper, and in addition was the first black employee of the new York subway. Family baht appreciated knowledge, and encouraged the girl to apply for a grant from Yeshiva University and win it while still in school. So she decided to become a doctor and devote his career working on problems of vision.
Soon, the bat has become a doctor of medicine and began working at the American Institute for the prevention of blindness. There the woman noticed that because of the social divide black people suffer from blindness more often white: they just didn’t have time for the treatment and prevention of problems. Bat he started doing this by opening a charitable clinic.
Scientists in the truest sense of the word Garrett Morgan will not name, but nicknamed the “black Edison,” he’s got an ulterior motive: this man invented the traffic light, gas mask and chemical composition for rectification of curly hair. Lights Morgan up with, after an accident, clearly the carelessness of the drivers did the trick. In 1923 he patented an “automatic traffic control”, and later it was bought by the American Corporation General Electric for $40 million, starting with the repair of sewing machines in Cincinnati, Ohio, Morgan ended his life almost blind millionaire, who worked on new inventions until his death.
David Harold Blackwell
mathematician and economist
Professor of statistics at the University of California at Berkeley, invented the mathematical methods of statistical analysis of financial markets (theorem RAO — Blackwell), enriched more than a dozen modern brokers and businessmen. His career, Blackwell began teaching Economics at the University of Illinois. After a young specialist decided not to stay and get his doctorate in Economics. At the same time his work became interested in John von Neumann — mathematician, who has contributed almost in all the Sciences of the twentieth century. Blackwell did not take the gesture, since at that time black scientists were not taken seriously by the scientific community. It turned out that Neumann was really impressed.
Scientist have applied to 105 colleges and universities across the country, which historically took on the job the blacks. Count on a bet of a Professor in a “white” University was not necessary. Soon, however, Blackwell was invited to take a professorship at UC Berkeley, where he worked until the end of life.
Without Percy Julian of humanity, probably for a long time, would tolerate the excruciating pain on the most trifling occasions. This chemist involved in the synthesis of hormones and other substances from plants that received procaine, which replaced the alkaloid cocaine. Of course, as it often happened in the history of science, previously the American novocaine got a Russian chemist of Jewish origin Anatoly Einhorn, but it is patented the American version listed for Julian and his team. He synthesized testosterone, progesterone and some steroids and spent a part of his life working on hormonal pills.
In American history, this scientist became one of the most important figures in the fight for the rights of the black population. In 1973 he received the title of honorary member of the American Academy of Sciences, becoming the second black scientist in the organization after the already mentioned Blackwell.