Now new Russia is ready to follow the path of historic predecessor
“Novye Izvestiya” has already dedicated their materials to the various things that are massively produced in the Soviet Union, although it was invented a very in other countries. Analyst Vadim Zhartun did a great job and created a kind of encyclopedia of Soviet borrowing. In the present circumstances, it becomes especially important.
In the heat of the next round of games in the sanctions-sanctions introduced by the Russian deputies proposed to legalize “gray import” of foreign high-tech products, and the Deputy Mikhail Emelyanov said that “we will be able ourselves to produce the products, if we have the technology, without the permission of the right holder”.
In people who have an idea about intellectual property and copyright, these statements stood the hair on end — this is pure, undisguised crime, the shortest path to full economic isolation. And yet to me this proposal is not surprising.
All this — and illegal imports and unlicensed copying of foreign technology, and its “creative interpretation” that is banal plagiarism — has been in the history of the Soviet Union, to which we return in leaps and bounds.
In the Soviet “borrowing” is especially striking for two things: their huge scale and amazing cynicism. Copied everything from huge factories, cars, tanks, planes and rockets to cameras, home appliances and children’s toys.
The clones were so many that among them it is hard to find anything original. And all of this often copied to the last screw, had received Russian names, and the blue eyes were given for another victory of domestic design ideas.
Copied — doesn’t mean always steal. What couldn’t be stolen, bought for the money. This applies mainly to large industrial facilities in the period of Stalin’s industrialization.
Intellectual centre for industrial construction during this period became the firm of American architect albert Kahn (Albert Kahn, Inc.), build Ford plant in Detroit, which received a package of orders for the construction of more than 500 industrial facilities in the USSR with a total value of 2 billion dollars (about 250 billion dollars in the prices of our time).
Magnitogorsk metallurgical combine (an exact copy of the steel plant in Gary, Indiana) was designed and built under the supervision of the American company Arthur G. McKee and Co. Blast furnace for this and all other metallurgical plants of the USSR was developed by the Chicago company Freyn Engineering Co.
GAZ-a (1932.) — Ford-A (1927).
Following Soviet pilot car of Leningrad-1 was an almost exact copy of the vehicle Buick-32-90.
GAZ-M1 (1936.) Ford Model B (Model 40A) (1934.)
In the course of adapting the model to the domestic use of the car partially redesigned by Soviet specialists.
The first Soviet serial compact car was supposed to be a KIM-10, the basis of which the design took a British Ford Prefect.
Moskvich 400 (1946.) — The Opel Kadett K38 (1937)
The main part of the equipment for the production of the car was removed from the factory Opel in rüsselsheim (located in the American occupation zone) and mounted in the USSR.
Later copy the concept car has changed a bit and laid her first postwar Soviet passenger car of the Executive class — the ZIS-110.
Externally, down to the last detail, the ZIS-110 was similar to the Packard 180 c body Touring Sedan last pre-war model 1942.
ZAZ 965 (1960.) — Fiat 600 (1955)
And ZAZ-966, copying the design of German small car NSU Prinz IV.
Moskvich-2141 (1986.) — Simca 1308 (1975)
Original exception was the famous Zhiguli VAZ-2101. They were fully licensed analogue of the Italian Fiat 124.
VAZ-2103 (1972) — Fiat 125 (1967.)
Later, on the basis of the VAZ-2103 has developed the “project 21031” subsequently renamed the VAZ-2106.
He began to do before the war — first they sent for training at BMW N. P.Serdyukov (apparently without theft documentation has not done), who later became head of the design office, on heavy motorcycling, then USSR anonymously bought 5 motorcycles in Sweden and in 1941 launched the production of “domestic” motorcycle under the brand name M-72 at the Moscow motor plant.
Soviet light tank T-26 was a license copy of the popular export of the British tank Vickers Mk E.
BT-2 (1931), — The m1928 Christie (1928)
Interestingly, the legendary Soviet T-34 tank was the result of the development of the ideas of American designer, Christie used his unique suspension.
In the area of small arms borrowing is also rife. The Soviet TT pistol both in appearance and structurally very similar to the Browning 1903, adapted chambered for a different caliber.
Before the war with Finland in 1934, the Soviet army appeared a submachine gun PPD.
The same can be said about many other Russian weapons: still tense debate about the authorship of the Kalashnikov and the intellectual contributions of Hugo Schmeisser in the design and Makarov on the creation of a PM obviously “inspired” Walter PPK.
The most valuable trophy of the USSR in the war with Germany was the V-2 rocket. To study the German missile program on the basis of three factories to build the V-2, “Institute Rabe,” the engine plant “Montana” and the test database in Germany was established the so-called Institute “Nordhausen”. Hajduk became its Director, Korolev — chief engineer, Glushko headed the Department for the study of engines, V-2.
From 1945 to 1947 the Soviet specialists in Germany collected all available data on the production of German missiles. A gathering was that: design documentation, prepared samples, production equipment and tooling, methods of calculation of heat transfer, calculation of thermodynamics and mixture formation in the chamber, the gas dynamics of the flow of gases from the nozzle, etc.
To copy the V-2, the Soviet specialists took several years — was affected by low crop production and lack of domestic components: in the German rocket used 87 brands and assortments in steel and 59 non-ferrous metals, in its domestic clone of R-1 to 32 and 21 respectively.
For Stalin the arrival of the B-29 to the Soviet land was a real gift. Therefore Stalin ordered the Tupolev aircraft to make an exact copy of B-29 bolt for bolt, for two years.
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In General, he succeeded, although many items in the USSR and failed to repeat. The copy was called the Tu-4.
Shaver Agidel-M, 1967. — Philishave SC 8010, the Netherlands, 1965
The same cleaner I saw at the exhibition “Soviet design 1950-1970”. Apparently, the organizers of the exhibition, as I believe that this is the Soviet design.
Vacuum Remoco (Erres) 1939.
The same non-native been found and a vacuum cleaner with the sonorous name “Moscow”.
Fed Micron and Konica EYE.
In General, the firm Konica in the USSR fell in a strange kind of love, because it is the first autofocus camera — Konica C35AF — copied on BelOMO called elikon Autofocus.
In Kiev has mastered production of the camera Kiev-35, the prototype of which was the Minox 35.
Camera Salyut-C (improved model known as the Kiev-88) is copied from the Hasselblad 1000F.
And this VCR Sony DV-3400 1969.
He turned out to be surprisingly similar to Japanese Panasonic NV-2000, released in 1975.
It turns out that this is almost an exact copy of the Samsung VCR VX-8220.
The popular electronic toy Elektronika IM-02 “just you wait!”, which was produced from 1984 was the unofficial Japanese clone of Nintendo EG-26 Egg from the Nintendo Game & Watch 1981.
Elektronika IM-03 “Mysteries of the ocean” (1987) — clone Nintendo OC-22 Octopus (1981) and so on.
And this is a very rare toy. Elektronika IM-12 with replaceable cartridges and screen, working in the lumen.
In 1983, the company released Bandai Digi Casse, from which were borrowed the idea of interchangeable cartridges.
Elektronika IM-27 “Space adventure” 1990. — experienced a series of games in the form of binoculars with a stereoscopic image.
And this is the Casio VL-Tone (VL-1), produced fifteen years earlier, in 1980.
We copied and technique seriously. Soviet home computer Bytes was similar to the ZX Spectrum, produced by the British company Sinclair, and the Soviet Agat — a copy of the Apple II in acidic tasteless design.
Even our children’s books — and those were the interpretations of foreign fairy tales.
Only “eagle” was built by a consortium that includes ExxonMobil (30%), SODECO (30%), ONGC (20%) and Yes, Rosneft (20%). The whole surface of the platform, including installation, for drilling, pumping, stockpiling of crude oil, equipment for life-support systems on the platform, fire fighting, residential quarters for the workers and staff, lifting devices, helicopter pad, etc., manufactured by the company “Samsung Heavy industries” project company “Worley Parsons” (Australia) shipyard in OKPO (South Korea). “Our” share is left only a concrete Foundation platform, built on the site of the Eastern port near Nakhodka in the far East… “Aker Solutions” (Norway), more precisely its unit “Aker Contracting Russia as”.
About the same story and “Prirazlomnaya”. Its lower part was laid down at Sevmash in 1995 (almost 23 years ago!), and the upper part was scrapped Norwegian platform “Hutton”, built in 1984 (30 years ago).
And all of this is just the tip of the iceberg. A list of clones you can continue almost indefinitely. It will include irons, military equipment, industrial equipment, electronics are a big part of what we believed her. This scale of borrowing is discouraging and even frightening. As frightening and reinforced the belief of the vast majority of the population, that all Soviet — it is our, native and also excellent. We are ahead of the rest, although in reality the last 100 years whip in the rearguard of world technical thoughts.
But the main thing in this story is different.
Fake and licensed copy is always produced late. Something was late for a couple of years, some half a decade. While most Soviet forgeries when the external similarity with the prototype was worse than the original. This had several reasons: attempts domestic “kulibinyh” to reduce the cost of production, lack of necessary materials and production equipment, as well as low crop production — carelessness, poor training specialists, rush jobs and other consequences of unprofessional management.
Progress is continuously accelerating. And if in the stone age for several centuries did not change anything, now every year there are the huge shifts in technology. To spend a few years copying computer or smartphone means to the result is hopelessly outdated and practically useless device.
The price of “admission ticket” to the world of high technology is growing. To copy a modern processor, you first need to copy the factory with the appropriate process. And to copy the factory, you need to copy the whole engineering industry.
Enormous investments in research and production required huge markets to pay off. Even if we imagine that the heroic effort late in a few years we almost build an entire industry and learn to produce a similar imported high-tech product, only the quality a little worse, who will buy it? Trapped in economic ghettos and impoverished Russians? There’s nobody to sell to the outdated and poor product will not succeed even without any sanctions. And without large volumes of production and sales on each unit of production will lay down all the costs, making this product literally Golden.
It is, of course, you can subsidize, until you run out of money in reserves. And they end, and end quickly. And then either it will have to save money for half of my life, or will inevitably arise the good old Soviet deficit with empty shelves, queues, and “clout.”
Now without Western technology we can’t even extract the oil from our mineral resources. Therefore, in the XXI century the idea of isolation from the world economy is a dangerous delusion that, in practice, nothing but a total economic catastrophe, can not finish. Those who publicly offers such a need, as favorite of USSR, send on compulsory treatment. And those who by their actions is pushing the country in this way is judged as traitors.
The article used the illustration and the materials of websites: art-on.ru, segodnya.ua, popmech.ru, bugaga.ru, nukemall.livejournal.com avia.pro and others. A huge thanks to them.