How the sausage gets made

6

Из чего делают колбасу

– Tell me, Mikoyan? asked thirty years ago, breathing in the unique aroma of the language, and can, Amateur or tea, customers in those years.

And today? Today we can not distinguish neither the smell nor the taste nor the color of the varieties of cooked sausages of the same sausage factory, No. 1 (he called Mikoyan) of the Moscow meat-packing plant and the rest even more so.

Why do sausages have become so tasteless? Tormented, I tasted varieties released by various Moscow factories. They meet all the Standards, Standards, standards, but, alas, not our tastes.

Tasteless is bad. But it is quite safe for health is a cooked sausage? At the mere mention of Caseinate sodium (does not that is associated with a casein glue), nitrite is not alone.

What is sodium Caseinate, nitrites and how they ended up in the sausage?-

From which prepared the sausage?

Cost 2 roubles 90 kopecks — from the highest grades of meat, and 2 rubles 20 kopecks and below first and second. On sausages of the premium there is the traditional recipe, since before the war. Recipe sausage first and second grades has changed. In particular, they allow the Supplement. The same sodium Caseinate, milk protein simply. It is absolutely harmless to the body; by the way, the nutritional value of proteins of milk and meat the same. And all over the world in the cooked sausage is added to either soy or milk proteins.

Not previously added, the reader will say. True, but before, and the meat was not that fat. According to the technology of making sausages, the ratio of protein and fat in them on average should be equal to 1:2. Now imagine a piece of beef: it meat 15%, the rest fat. The arithmetic is simple: that the sausage did not work fat, take 15% meat and 30% fat and the remaining fat where? To throw away? Or to change the formulation of sausages and cook them with a high fat content? If we have such sausage, the cholesterol in the blood we will have to grow. It is the high fat content of the meat creates a hopeless situation and forced the use of milk proteins. As long as the USSR state agricultural and raw materials supplier — will not improve

In their products, the industry will be forced to add sodium Caseinate in the cooked sausage.

You wonder how we clumsy! And how quickly consumer demand react to US farmers. Barely American media of information and criticized.’ foods high in fat, as here I went to a chain reaction: people did not buy, the industry did not buy from the farmers the raw material, and s a result they were forced to breed cattle of meat breeds.

Now the nitrites. Yes, they are used in sausage production: 7 grams per 100 pounds of meat. And always used. Nitrites give the sausage pink color, without them it’s gray, like boiled meat, not the presentation. In addition, the presence of nitrites in sausage is required for another reason: they prevent the growth of microorganisms that produce toxic poisons.

Why the change in raw materials?

Just a few years ago, we thought of a huge cattle-breeding complexes our pride. Oh, it’s the desire for megalomania! Animals grown in such complexes is limited by the spaces of the stall, fixed from birth, I see fresh air, afraid of every sound and shied away at the sight of the man. As we are, they are also prone to stress. And while you carry them. to the slaughter, in transport, not adapted for the transportation of livestock, they so much fear in the way naterpitsya, poor, what can I say about the high quality of raw materials for sausage products is not necessary. About this raw experts say exudative. It is a loose texture, loose, flabby, pale and watery. And excessively greasy.

“Behind the seven seals”, or the Secrets of sausage production

The theater begins with a hanger, and sausage production with the railroad. Daily on the Moscow meat-packing plant arrives 20 cars with raw materials. Carcasses, half-carcasses and frozen blocks.

Strange rules of the contractual deliveries. If the buyer, that is the plant, received from a supplier, a bad raw, he has no right to abandon it. Yes, he calls the supplier, through arbitration, they discover’ relations, supplier pays a fine. And poor quality raw materials? The plant required to process it into sausage or other products…

That’s what I told the head of the single Moscow state inspection on quality of agricultural products and processed products L, I. Gordienko: “111 quarter of last year we checked 392,6 tons of raw materials, rejected 306. Constantly deliver a poor raw material with signs of damage, with verdigris surface, with yellowed adipose tissue, re-grading Voronezh, Penza, Belgorod, Krasnodar, Kursk agroindustrial complexes.”

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Enter the raw sausage shop of plant No. 1 of the Moscow meat-packing plant. Skillfully cut up the carcass of obalsti meat. The rest of raw materials— 30-35% — comes in frozen blocks.

I saw these blocks, I saw and imported complex machine that suddenly swallows them and throws the chopped meat. And now conscience. Add in the factory stuffing paper, cellophane, animal skins, bones? I have not seen, but tried to look at almost every Chan.

From then paper and cellophane? They do, to be honest, often gets in boiled sausages.

What is butcher block, I think few people know. For the experiment, take out of the freezer and the fridge is a piece of frozen meat, which is tightly stuck paper or cellophane. And try to pull out. How much time you take in hands a piece of ice? Likely to leave, let them thaw. And working no time for that, technology is not provided, and the unit weighs one kilogram. and 15-30. So they toss these frozen blocks.

Has been forced to freeze meat in blocks. But do the experts really that hard to “invent” another package? And yet very often the paper’ a label indicating the grade of meat stick, she lorazepams it firmly, the block is wrapped in cellophane, which creeps into the cracks of the meat — not to pull out. Why vendors may not pack the unit in a clean standard container, and send to the factory? It may be objected: but where to take it? Yes, it is a problem. But it should be solved, and urgently. Until then, until the meat blocks are fed to the plant in this form, none of us is immune from chewing sausages with paper, cellophane and others, not improving its taste and quality “additives”.

Metamorphosis technology

— And if the raw material meets all the Standards, the sausage would be delicious as before? — ask a naive consumer make a mistake.

Ideally, for the production of sausages need fresh meat. So preparing for it thirty years ago.

And now almost all the plants operate on frozen meat, but it is not a violation of the technology. Just His Majesty the Plan compels you to change the standard. Here is the first cause of the deterioration of the taste of sausages. For clarity, let us see how prepared Amateur (2 rubles and 90 kopecks). Her recipe has not changed since pre-war times, and technology? The first deviation we noticed.

Second. Frozen blocks is the cat in the bag. Sometimes they come in the higher grade, but when checking the higher is the first, first second. But all the raw materials entering the factory, not verified, and there is re-grading. And in favorite us Amateur could easily get the meat higher, and first grade. And to change the taste.

Ambassador of meat is now produced as follows: in forcemeat add salt solution and allowed to stand 6-12 hours. Time is also laid in the Guest. Somewhere it is aged, and where-that is reduced, that’s on the conscience of the enterprise. Used to be traditionally salted in pieces and aged for 5-7 days. Now you can salt do not allow any power plant, no plan. Here’s another reason for the change of taste of the sausage.

Finally, heat treatment. The temperature in the center of the loaf previously had the opportunity to 68°, and is now down to 72°. Raising the temperature and time of thermal treatment of sausages, we, on the one hand, prevent possible poisoning, and on the other, we lose the taste, flavor, smell.

…To validate a sausage factory № 1 of the Moscow meat-packing plant of the single Moscow state inspection on quality of agricultural products and products of its processing for 111 quarter 1988: “…locked up in the office for packing of spices and additives. Box with spices and bags with additives arranged around the room haphazardly, in bulk. The subset of ready mixed spices stacked in piles directly into boxes and bags. Packets are not marked; therefore, none of those present could not name what kind of sausage they cooked.

The plant violated the requirements of the technological instructions for producing cooked sausage products. So, ascorbic acid is laid in the ground meat in dry form instead of a 5% solution and still volumetric method (enamelled mug). Egg powder also laid the volumetric method (Cup). In addition, at the time of inspection bags of egg powder was standing on a wet floor. Salt for salting is not pre-weighed, added to the raw bucket. A solution of sodium nitrite at the time of inspection was in a container without a lock”. Comments are superfluous.

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And if you care about the safety of sausages, the first thing we need to worry about the sanitary condition of the plant. It is terrifying. Everywhere puddles, mud, the ceiling in proteco. Over 55 years of existence, the plant never stopped for overhaul. All require a plan, plan, plan. And that. that plan must include a working shift for cleaning or Gosplan or the Ministry of trade of the USSR had not thought of. Most importantly — tons of sausages, produced daily, and God forbid at least a month to stop the plant to repair…

In order not to increase the temperature and cooking time of the sausages, the equipment should be washed very carefully, and not aunt Mary have to do it, as it is today, a qualified team of cleaners, equipped with special equipment and detergents. And while no crews, no equipment, no appropriate detergent, one is the saving of bleach on all occasions.

“Here comes the master, the master will judge us…”

“You’ll enter the new year with a state quality control in the factories, then come”,— told me many of the agencies responsible for the production of sausages. And I remembered Nekrasov line.

The two plants of the Association “mosmyasoprom” I tried sausages approved by the state acceptance. They taste good: too salty, and no flavor. I was assured that the taste-de— subjective, and sausages meet the state Standards. And maybe the Standards need to change, as at the time, properely circumstances. Gosstandart of the USSR changed them. allowing to put in sausage manufacture frozen meat, to reduce time of salting, increase the cooking time…

It’s amazing, we all know that the sausage was just useless. So let’s delve into the essence of the problem, to seek the origins of the bad taste of the product and to find the optimum, and most importantly — the right outputs out of the impasse. We immediately rush to solve organizational problems. Yeah, it was tasteless sausage? And we introduce state approval, state approval us a taste of change. How, you ask? If nothing changes — neither the formulation nor technology or raw materials…

Again, we all love sausage and want to make it megs and slow processes allows our fleeting life can be all-Union scientific-research and design Institute of the meat industry prepare and implement a different recipe sausages. And do the sausage, even with additives but tasty. Because technology and formulation in the production of sausages — one! It is unlikely that it will return in the near future to continue its technological processes and about doubles the meat for sausage is also, probably, it is necessary to forget and about the fact that his pickled 5-7 days. And the raw material in a single moment will not get better.

What now? Checks gospriemka quality: starch, moisture, salt, nitrite— all the rules, and gustatory senses we are not satisfied.

“I think that the current organization of production and trade of sausage gospriemka will not solve the problem,— the chief of Department of the Moscow state inspection on quality of agricultural products and processed products of the S. P. Zarubin.— Yes I. in the organization of state quality control is not all right. Chain inspection should begin with inspection of raw materials and end with the analysis of the quality of the sausage, which has just released the plant, and the one that comes on the store shelf to the consumer.”

“It’s always winter”— no wonder the joke of the manufacturers of sausages. True, we have not only in Moscow — everywhere there is a lack of transport with refrigerating equipment for the delivery of the sausages from the factory to the store. Winter frost helps, but in summer the temperature in the machine reaches during hot weather, 25-40”. And the valid terms of storage of sausages at a temperature not higher than 5-8″ for 72 hours — for higher grades, no longer than 48 hours for first and second grades.

While sausage will be delivered to the hot body shopping, which often not complied with the conditions of storage, will be three hours, and then all six, and sausage can be safely discarded if you don’t want to get poisoned. And sell after all…

This metamorphosis sausage production does not end there. In the State inspection on product quality, standardization and Metrology of the USSR state agricultural hinted to me that sausages are approved by the state approval, should be better, and that means… more expensive.

Clear. For quality you have to pay. It is not clear why from the pocket of the consumer?

V. SHKOLNIKOVA

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