The reasons for the formation of these objects is still not entirely clear.
Astronomers have obtained the first pictures of abnormally bright black hole PSO J352-15 remote from us 13 billion light years and existed in the early days of the Universe. Her photographs and insights of scientists was submitted to the Astrophysical Journal.
“We see this object in the same condition in which it was at a time when the universe was living on less than a billion years. This quasar lived at the end of the era of its evolution when the first stars and galaxies made the Universe transparent, ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium. Monitor PSO J352-15 will help us understand how much he had at the time,” said Chris Carilli (Chris Carilli) from the National radio astronomy Observatory in Socorro (USA).
It is believed that in the center of the most massive galaxies live supermassive black holes, whose mass can range from a million to a billion solar masses. Initially, scientists believed that such objects occurred in the same way as their normal “cousins” — as a result of gravitational collapse of stars and the subsequent mergers of several large black holes.
Observing the first galaxies of the Universe have forced astrophysicists to doubt it. It turned out that they contained black holes with a mass of tens of billions of Suns. These objects, as shown by the calculations just did not have time to grow to such dimensions, if they were born small.
So some scientists began to believe that supermassive black holes are born in more exotic scenarios. They can occur as a result of the collapse of a giant cloud of pure atomic hydrogen or by clumps of dark matter and exotic dark stars, whose mass may be hundreds of times higher than conventional lights.
For this reason, as noted by Carilli and his colleagues, dozens of astronomers around the world today are looking for bright enough and large black holes in the early Universe, trying to use their light as a kind of “lamps” that illuminated the dark space around them. They produce radio emission, and the light can “give” the sources of mass that nourish them, and cause them to grow faster than predicted by the theory.
Carilli and his team found the first “lamp” watching the night sky of the southern hemisphere with the help of a network of telescopes VLBI, combining the resources of several powerful radiotrack the world.
In the constellation of Aquarius, they noticed a bright point situated as shown by the analysis of its spectrum, to the extremely long distance from Earth — about 13 billion light-years. She was named P352-15.
After analyzing its structure, the researchers came to the conclusion that we are dealing with the most powerful quasar is a giant black hole in the center of a distant galaxy, constantly emitting beams of red-hot matter at relativistic speeds.
Traces of these emissions, as discovered by astronomers later, you notice two other bright points, located a short distance from the city center P352-15, about five thousand light-years. They are generated by a so-called jet — a narrow and very hot beams of plasma which “spits” a black hole.
The large distance between P352-15 and the Ground has not yet been possible to determine the mass and dimensions of the associated galaxy, but now, as they note, one can say that she is the brightest source of radio waves in the young Universe, whose power is ten times higher than that of all other objects known to astronomers.
Further observation of it, as scientists hope will help reveal the exact shape of its jets and to understand how this black hole interacts with surrounding matter, and what is in her galaxy and the surrounding intergalactic gas reserves.