Last post I dedicated to the recognition of the Soviet alcoholism in the Soviet satirical magazine “Crocodile”. I decided to Preface a collection of cartoons about drunks more serious text. Today publish this. Without any of cartoons and jokes.
Colonialists who want to permanently enslave the population of the occupied territory without the noise and dust, have resorted to the old tried method – solder it. Examples are numerous. The best known trade with the natives of North America and Siberia “of the fur in exchange for fire-water”. Total soldering usually begins immediately. First of all it still have bad poor to settle in the territory, to destroy her elite. After that, people falls into the power of the conqueror. As the conqueror sets in the conquered areas of severe magnitude, the population after some time, even devoid of cultural and political elite, is beginning to grumble. And there – and before the uprising in the neighborhood. Here also it is necessary to start an all-out soldering. In this regard, it is curious to briefly recall how the Bolsheviks solder subjugated population on the territory of the former Russian Empire.
As you know, the beginning of the First world war on the territory of Russian Empire was imposed prohibition. He certainly violated here and there (just as, for example, violated the dry law in the USA, introduced at the beginning of XX century). But in General, the sale of alcohol was banned. The Bolsheviks seized power in the country during the war and, consequently, adopted the “Willy-nilly” some code of the former tsarist government. In particular – prohibition. And also were forced at first to thwart any attempt of violation of this law – remember all those stories about the pogroms wine warehouses in Petrograd, etc.
Prohibition spawned the phenomenon of mass moonshining, with whom the Bolsheviks were forced to fight (as an illustration, recall the Soviet film “the Green van”, in which a good half of the plot revolves around brewing). Moreover, the Bolsheviks at first even confirmed their intention to fight the consumption of alcohol. So, on December 19, 1919 people’s Commissars of the RSFSR adopted the resolution “On the interdiction on the territory of the country of manufacture and sale of alcohol, alcoholic beverages and non-beverage alcohol-containing substances.”
However, the Bolsheviks soon realized what “pig” they planted the “bloody tsarist regime”. To install their open terrorist dictatorship of the Bolshevik in the country without the aid of alcohol was difficult. Sober people are too horrified by the Bolsheviks perpetrated lawlessness. Therefore, in 1920, were allowed the production and sale of grape wine alcohol level to 12 percent (degrees).
Further – more. 8 Dec 1921 decree “On the sale of grape wines” were allowed to sell wine with an alcohol of up to 20 percent. And on August 26, 1923, the USSR Central Executive Committee and SNK of the USSR issued a decree on the resumption of production and trade of alcoholic beverages in the USSR. Including started the production of vodka. As Chairman of the SNK of the USSR from 1924 was A. I. Rykov, vodka the people got the name “Rakovka” how many decades later in honor of Yuri V. Andropov the “Moscow special vodka” called “Andropovka”. But about this – later.
It should be noted that before the revolution the term “vodka” was used rarely. In use were mostly the term “white (bread) wine”. Only in the 1930’s the Polish word “wodka” has become common to refer to a strong alcoholic beverage from alcohol.
Russian national mythology associates with the emergence of vodka as an alcoholic beverage, the name of the great Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleyev. They say, that Mendeleev thought to dilute alcohol in the proportion of 40/60 water and so there was a “Russian vodka”. It is not so. Dmitry in fact, there is a dissertation “On the connection of alcohol with water”, but it is not about creating a new drink. But why the name of Dmitry Mendeleev popular rumor persistently associates with vodka?
The fact that the young Mendeleev worked on the famous Russian merchant-millionaire Vasily Kokorev, who made a fortune on “wine farming”. By the early 60-ies of the XIX century, he was enormous in those times the state – eight million rubles. By the mercy of tsarist Russia was called the law, which the state gave to a private individual to collect various payments with a down payment of income to the Treasury. The original lease system in Russia covers a large number of types of entrepreneurship (horse duties, fees with mills, baths, taverns, malt, etc.) But by the middle of the XVIII century the basis of the farming system gradually become otkupa. In 1861 the receipt from farmers in the Treasury was $ 126,4 million – 45% of all budget revenues of the Empire. It was a period of a kind of gold rush, when merchants involved in wine farming, quickly became a rich one. Otkupa in the Russian Empire – interesting topic. But more about that some other time.
Now, fate has brought the young Dmitri Mendeleev with Vasily Kokorev. And since Kokorev was famous throughout Russia as a wine farmer, engaged in primarily the infamous “white wine (bread),” Mendeleev later wrote a paper “On the connection of alcohol with water”, that popular rumor and linked the name of Mendeleev’s vodka. However, in reality the cooperation of V. A. Kokorev and Mendeleev had no relationship to alcohol. The young Mendeleev – then a Professor of St. Petersburg University, advised Kokoreva in the framework of a large project there for the extraction and transportation of oil from Baku. Mendeleyev, by the way, gave some valuable advice: he offered to introduce round-the-clock distillation of crude oil, to develop the production of enameled barrels, to organize oil Maritime transportation, pave nefteprovod from the plant to the sea. By 1883 at Kokoreva in Baku there were more than 200 plants. Every year on the Caspian sea and the Volga was transported 35 million pounds “kokorevskoye” oil, as most peasant huts have covered the torch, and kerosene production Kokoreva. But I’m diverting. Back to the history of vodka under the Bolsheviks.
Vodka in Rykiv had a fortress 30 percent (degrees). About it complained about another Professor of Transfiguration of the “heart of a Dog”. Maybe in the 30’s the strength of vodka in 30% was due still remains, so to speak, social-democratic conscience. After all, the notorious revolutionary intelligentsia (which by the end of the 30’s were mostly all destroyed) criticizing the tsarist times, accused the tsarist government in the welding people. And admittedly, it was a fair criticism. Even Vasily Kokorev in his work wrote about the inadmissibility of trade “white wine in 40% of the” buckets for the removal of taverns, as this leads to much drunkenness among the people. The Bolsheviks needed some time to make the psychological transition from criticism of the tsarist government for a massive trade vodka to the beginning of its extensive trade with the same. 30% vodka “Rakovka” was a kind of transitional element, “they say, Yes, sell vodka, but not so strong as when the king”.
But the Bolshevik government (and Stalin personally, who himself drinking wine) was the desired product of this strength to the legs cut down, odurmanivaya people, immersing them in a total virtual world in which the cod propaganda about “progress of five-year plans” obscured the horrors of Stalin’s Soviet Union and the hardships that the new serfdom rests on the shoulders of millions of workers and peasants. In other words, not being able, and not wanting to make the lives of tens of millions of Soviet workers a little better and squeezing out of them all the juices, Stalin decided that the best option is working as a slave in the production and on the farm the farmer who after work fills my eyes swill maximum strength.
And on the eve of the entry of the USSR in the Second world war, in February 1941, the USSR appeared GOST 239-41. This GOST was describing technical conditions of production of new alcoholic beverages: vodka “Moscow special”, 40% ABV, and vodka with just a nuclear fortress – 50% and 56%. Here, the Soviet workers, rejoice and be glad. Now to live in the USSR you will be much easier and more fun.
Why is the GOST, which included the production and sale of vodka be brutal fortress, appeared in 1941? Of course, with the upcoming war it was not associated – as it is known, Stalin was lulled in the hope that Germany would not attack the USSR. Then why? Because the massive increase in the country (and in the Soviet Union, vodka production was super-massive) production and sale of spirits and 50% and 56% is not even strong, and saboktakin is always evidence of deterioration of life of the General population and the desire of the authorities to reduce social tension, filling the brains of people with alcohol. Recall, for example, the beginning of the 90s, when everywhere was sold litre bottles of the notorious alcohol “Royal” – it was a time when a huge portion of the population was below the poverty line. But in 1941, it seems this was not? The population of the USSR was so poor, so below to fall materially, it could not. However there was something that greatly aggravated and without that unenviable situation of workers of the USSR.
June 26, 1940 issued a Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “About the transition to the eight-hour day, seven-day workweek and the prohibition of unauthorized care workers and employees from enterprises and institutions”. This Decree, in particular, provides for:
“1. To increase the working hours of workers and employees in all state, cooperative and public enterprises and institutions from seven to eight hours for enterprises with a seven-hour work day; … from six to eight hours for employees of institutions… 2. Translate all state, cooperative and public enterprises and institutions to work six days in a seven day week… 3. To prohibit unauthorized care workers and employees of state, cooperative and public enterprises and institutions, as well as the unauthorized transfer from one enterprise to another or from one institution to another… 5. To establish that employees who absconded from the state, cooperative and public enterprises or institutions shall be made to the court and by sentence of people’s court exposed to a term of imprisonment from 2 months to 4 months. To establish that for absenteeism without valid reason workers and employees of state, cooperative and public enterprises and institutions were brought to justice…»
If paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Decree just worsened working conditions, increasing operation time, and instead of two days off per week leaving only one, paragraphs 3 and 5 of this Decree was actually entered serfdom. Moreover, if the earlier serfdom in Stalin’s Soviet Union extended only to the residents of rural areas (loss of passport), then in the summer of 1940 serfdom was already widespread for urban workers.
Or prohibition on the right to change jobs at their own discretion, and, consequently, the opportunity to leave for residence in another locality is not serfdom? What is it? Soviet total freedom?
The decree of 26 June 1940, as the ax head fell on the Soviet people. Here just imagine. You live not so brilliant, but still you have some last freedom – the freedom to change the drudgery of work for something better, if there’s any chance, the freedom to go from one city to another. In addition, the work you do five days a week, but if an employee of the institution only six hours a day. That, anyway, allows some to come to terms with a very ugly reality of the Stalinist USSR. And suddenly, overnight, you report that a) your working day is lengthened b) the number of days per month decreases (transition six days a week), plus C) you now have the right to go to another job. Well, as a bonus – and even prosecute for truancy, which often equate being late to work more than 10 minutes. And this is not just any limited period, for example, for one year, and indefinitely, i.e. forever. How would you feel?
Especially, of course, this law has hit young people. Because if people of middle and old age can hardly expect the transition to another job, the youth very often gets a job temporarily to gain the skills and then look for something better. It was a social strike on the Soviet workers of enormous power. Here it was necessary to include bestbyte soldering people to the fullest. What else was there to do the population suddenly turned into state serfs, as not to drink to the loss of pulse? Think about what the morale of the Red army met on 22 June 1941. However, this is a separate issue and I it more details reviewed in 2009 in a special post (https://germanych.livejournal.com/124372.html).
Another thing I want to say separately. In itself, the production of highly alcoholic beverages cannot be equated to the soldering of the population. The question is the volumes of such production and consumption. For example, in our days it is possible to find the alcohol strength of 50%. And if you take a drink like absinthe, its strength much higher than 56%. However, the drinks are very limited consumption. Drink a small number of people. And the fight against absinthe, for example, tells about the understanding of the authorities of the damage from a particularly strong drink. In any case, the presence on the market is particularly strong alcohol along with a huge amount of alcoholic drinks a much smaller fortress, in particular, wine, has any man the right to choose. In Soviet Russia, cheap vodka was practically the only available workers and peasants alcoholic beverage. And considering that vodka produced in the Soviet Union in just the cosmic scale, and the notorious culture of consumption was very low (proletariat whipped vodka – only way), and the brunt of the work in Stalin’s Soviet Union demanded from the people though such a form to disconnect from everyday Soviet hell, that was a proper soldering of the population.
GOST 239-41, involving the production of vodka in 50% and 56%, operated until 1950. And then was introduced GOST 4362-50. I think he cancelled the production of this strong liquor that turns people into zombies? Not at all. GOST 4362-50 only slightly corrected the previous, but continued just as well be called “Vodka 50%, 56% and Moskovskaya Osobaya 40%. Technical conditions.» Here is the label of vodka, produced according to GOST.
In 1968 GOST 4362-50 repealed and it was replaced by a number of other Standards. But one of the new – standard 12712-67, still described the production of vodka 50% and 56% – it was called “Vodka 50% and 56%. Specifications.»
By the way, on labels of vodka 56% strength, which is presented above, the specified GOST 12546-67 instead of GOST 12712-67. But GOST 12546-67 is specifications on “Vodka Stolichnaya”, and not strength vodka 56%. But it is, by the word how you can trust the information about the Guest on Soviet labels. But we go further.
GOST 12712-67 (vodka 50% and 56%) was repealed in 1982. By that time it acted GOST 12712-80. It would seem that it was already much softer the Brezhnev era and the need for very strong liquor is absent. However, new Visitor (12712-80) just in case, still the technical possibility of production of vodka in 50% and 56%. I really have never seen in the sale of vodka a fortress in the Brezhnev or polarizable time. However, I will not tell that very much actively consumed vodka. So, it is possible that sometimes sold, but I just did not come across.
Yeah, about Andropov. When Yuri finally came to power, despite the fact that the man he would be smart, but some of their ideas for the development of the country. As a former Chairman of the KGB he knew (maybe like no other in the USSR), the country’s economy faster and faster going downhill, and I’m kind of a fight. But it is a no brainer not figured out how to start to tighten the screws in terms of “strengthening of labour discipline”. Because “the strengthening of labor discipline” – this is a purely Stalinist trend, it is clear that he had to go with the bonus vodka gift of the Soviet workers. What Andropov did, giving Soviet workers the new vodka – “Moscow special” strength of 40% and price of 4 rubles 70 kopecks. However, it was not new and was already provided for Stalinist GOST 1941. Just under Brezhnev, it ceased to be issued.
So Andropov symbolically returned to the Soviet citizens and the Stalinist “strengthening of labour discipline”, and Stalin’s vodka – “Moscow special”. However, “the strengthening of labor discipline” seems to undermine the last strength of the Soviet people.
Well, all that Gorbachev had to rake. And, of course, complicated the situation of total Soviet drunkenness began to rake in a Communist, that is, as always, inept and crooked, but in the end, fighting with the evil one, gave people a new one. But that’s another story.