About cod fishing in the 19th century


Desert and mountainous shore of the North-Western part of the Arkhangelsk province from the North of the Nose to the lips is called the Kola in Murmansk or just — Murman.

Side of it facing the sea, and are indented by deep gulfs, which represent a very convenient place for Parking of boats of the white sea sudohost.

In the gorges, in which flow of a small river that sheltered the old house, not felled, but woven from fine birch and is surrounded by sand on the sides and top. This is a fisherman’s camp.

They are commonly isbook of six and serve from April to August in temporary housing — porutham.

Pokretani called fishermen hired by sugohasameeda for catching cod and halibut.

Hiring them is commonly done by March 1, the day of St. Eudocia, in all the villages, from the town of Onega to Kandalagskaya lips, where rare in the village there is the so-called Bogatell, that is, a wealthy farmer, who, along with the money inherited and the custom is every year to hire workers to do this lucrative fishery.

Read the material “Catch cod in the Barents sea”

By the end of February are starting to come back to them the poor peasants with the offer of their services.

Enter the hut, prayed to the icon, plummet to the owner kowtow and become prichalki and Bogatell sitting on the bench Yes, but a beard shakes. “Well, say, what brings you here?»

The peasants, as usual, don’t suddenly start to explain the main reason for his visit and talk from a distance. “That, they say, evdokii come, the sun has become stronger to burn and snow pool — only to tie up the skis and Katie want to Murman”.

If these are experienced people, the case is soon settled, because the owner is not clothed with pokretani. Routinely at each of the courts appointed for four adults. They were given the works-third of all fish caught, which they divide among themselves equally; only karmic receives a half share, half of its borrowing from the master part.

Moreover, given him sverchek, that is the reward for finished work, from 5 to 50 rubles, depending on the catch. Good korsikov a bit, they’re all accounted for, and care for them themselves already rich.

Read the material “Autumn: the time of catching a big bleak”

— Lo and behold-Ko, WAN — says affectionately suojataan met as if by chance such a man, lo and behold-for the sun-how hot. Yes if the truth you say, and it’s time too, because the court of Evdokia. I think I would have worn skis and gave up on Murman. So tempted.

— Why it was? — he answers, knowing where the conversation leans. — Wear and Kati with God himself, good, hunting came.
Well where are me! You can’t, Vanya! Old bones in peace time. Here is how you remove head, has served me again slubicka.
For cha not to do, Kondrat Eliseich! Come on now only two rubles for a drink, Yes at least thirty Rublev come to pass and to think do not can.


Illustration from the archive of Zhuravkova Anton

The owner is not traded, and it harmoniously.

Before the release of porotov the owner’s treating them to a hearty lunch where, of course, not without booze. On the other or third day of the committed wires.

The entire male population of the village, from ten boys to white-haired old men, in chulkah deer with fur on the outside, going slowly down the street, surrounded by peasants. For the crowd followed by a large yellow dog, harnessed to a sled, which is some baggage. Weeping, and the mournful prichesyvaniya alternate with choral song, composed for this occasion.

Read the material “How to seduce carp”

Sometimes from the midst of the crowd break out a dance-tune, accompanied by tambourine and harmonica. But this feigned merriment of young people only reinforces the sadness. Say goodbye to the howling peasant, pokryty double steps.

If frost froze the top layers of snow, they tie up the skis and quickly roll them, after Corsicana, and finally reach the rich villages, usually located on both banks of small rivers, five miles from the sea.

Now, thanks to God, pokryty finally reached their camp. In the sea goes still ice, but far from the shore. It’s time to work: a voracious cod appeared in the bays in pursuit of the herring.

Parroty produce tiers, that is, thick and long, six miles in, the rope, the ends of which are two large stone trapped in gnarled logs, and the entire length attached to it, three feet apart, thin and short cords with hooks, baited with pieces of herring, salmon or worms and small fish.

An extruded layer is lowered to the seabed, in the form of long and rare comb, with teeth ending in hooks, stuck them on bait. From anchor stones go from shallow seabed to the water surface two ropes tied to a wooden block, on which the staves sticking out with a long broom.

It is mahawiki, meaning the place where the curled layer. He throws into the water and pulls out her taglet; he takes cod with hooks and skewer them on a new bait — najvacsi.

Sets snake the most convenient way to eject stones and clear veselic; selects locations for fishing and ruling the rudder — karmic. That’s all four pokreta that make up the white sea the crew of the vessel assigned to this fishery.

Read the material “Old trail led to the hare”

When they are usually two to three boy, called Plovers. Fellows who do not receive in the division of any share, feed that remains from the big. However, it is propolene boys.

They stoked the stove, cook soup, dig worms, wash the barrel; in short, in their hands lies all the household mill.

If goes well fish, then layer take it off for two full snake, and the layer in the sky, a day, sometimes five times. Following this, begin onshore work.

Caught fish plastuc, regresiva not her belly, but the back, remove spinal bone and liver; then put it in rows on the poles, backed by goats, where it dries for about three months.

Thus cooked cod called stockfish.

But by far the greater number of it salted with spinal bone in covered pits dug on the shore and is lined inside with moss. Here, from floor to ceiling, put the cod series, sprinkling them with salt.

Drips from the liver of cod is known to fat.

Halibut never dried on Murman. This fish is fatter because dried cod and soon spoiled. It is salted, not taking, however, the head, as is done for the most part with cod.

Read the material “Guide for catching big catfish”

By the end of summer for encampments come the owners themselves, with food and alcoholic beverages, which are paid for parroty selling them belonging to the part of the catch. The feast goes up to the mountain until all sypletsya or until you leave the owner with a cargo of cod in Arkhangelsk.

There, in September, the whole white sea Dvina river is dammed by the courts, and throughout the city carried the unpleasant smell that gets cod for the bad salting.

From Arkhangelsk are drawn to this fish endless carts on Sumskoy fair, where she has already brought in Peter.


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