The lighthouse at the very South of the country.
On the high rocky shore is the oldest Norwegian lighthouse, pointing the way to the Skagerrak Strait.
Photos and text of Rustem Adagamov
When the Explorer is directed from the North sea to the Baltic, the first thing he goes for is notorious for its winds, strong currents and frequent mists of the Skagerrak. Over on the left the rocks of southern Norway, to the right the white sandy shore of Denmark. Sailors Skagerack always enjoyed a bad reputation, many fishing boats and large trading ships went to the bottom in these areas.
So the captains can see the entrance of the Strait, July 18, 1655, the Danish king, Frederick III issued a decree giving the resident Kristiansand Poalu Hansenne the right to build a lighthouse at Cape Lindesnes. Construction was to be financed by taxes levied on ships entering the ports of Norway to the South and East of Bergen. However, the autumn in that year was early, the sea began storms and ships from Kristiansand materials for the construction of a lighthouse arrived to the Cape late in seven weeks, and the ship with coal from England has not arrived at all. Managed to build a three-storey wooden tower in which the glass was burning 30 large candles. This was definitely not enough and even though the coal for a big fire was taken, the king ordered for next fall to put out the lighthouse.
Again plans to light the lighthouse Lindesnes returned only in 69 years. At this time, for the organization of work of the lighthouse was undertaken by the entrepreneur jørgen Bornholm. He took the court with the salt mines in Vestfold and was fond of marine cartography, navigation. Bornholm has built two coal-fired lighthouse in one Lindesnes, the second a little to the West, on the island of Brand. They were just pockets, which fueled the fire of wood and coal. 1 Oct 1725 both the lighthouse started.
In 1822 for lighthouses on the Lindesnes Peninsula and the island of the Brand was built a special design. Now inside the building of brick in the evening was razziali coal and it burned with a strong flame inside the lattice pipes in a wooden superstructure with glass-lenses. Structure of brick with niches-ducts remained still — and Lindesnes, and Brand.
In 1915 on Lindesnes put a tower of cast iron with new mirrors and lenses. Was built machinery room with two diesel engines, which supplied electricity for the lights. In addition, there was mounted a powerful foghorn for signaling in fog. Permanent staff maintained the lighthouse until 2003, then it became the responsibility of the Museum, which in this place was opened in 1992. But still the lighthouse Lindesnes, despite the appearance among the seamen of modern navigation systems, is still in service.
To get to the lighthouse Lindesnes, need from Kristiansand to go in the direction of Stavanger E38 on the road and in the right place to turn in the direction of the sea. Lighthouse road is winding and very picturesque. Here is an ordinary Norwegian village where many people buy houses as a summer cottage South coast of Norway is very popular secured capital’s residents.
Here you can buy a small island in the archipelago, put on his house to make jetty and spend summer vacation. These cottages (in Norwegian hytte) in the waters and in the mountains usually paint in the color of the earth or not painted at all, so as not to spoil the landscape. Top turf is a local chic. They are more expensive than conventional coating of metal, because require special care. Electricity to the cottages down, holding the cable on the bottom of the reservoir (in this photo, a cheaper option is the wires on poles). Privacy and quiet, nature fusion is that Norwegians love.
Boat, boat or small boat — indispensable attributes of human life in these places. To manage a boat or sail can do everything. The houses in the photo, by the way, about 100-150 years, and some even more. Houses in the settlements of southern Norway is mainly painted white, outbuildings — ochre of different shades.
In addition to fish here catch and crabs, a lot of them in shallow water and during the night abandoned at the bottom of the net is stuffed two dozen, no less. However, there is one problem. When I lived in those places, I bought one to sample some crabs (they are often sold with trailers in the Parking lots). To buy I bought them, and they’re alive. Put in water, boiled them, and they claws wiggling and looking at me plaintively and accusingly. Feel sorry for them was to tears. In General, it was the first and last time I tried to cook himself crab.
And here is Lindesnes lighthouse. Right old, of the coal, about which I wrote above. On the left the one that was built in 1915. The hour is late, the Museum was closed and the people at the lighthouse were not. Near the stairs is an old anchor from the wreck in these places sailing ship of the eighteenth century.
Unique weather stone, which exactly determines the weather. If it’s warm, then the sun shines. If wet — raining. If the stone is white — snow. If no stone, then mist.
Everyone who comes here must do this the views of the “new” lighthouse from the air intake niches “old”.
Like on Earth there is no life.
In the place where during the Second world war was one of the guns of the artillery batteries the Germans made a map of the world.
After the occupation of Norway in 1940 the Germans were actively engaged in the construction of artillery batteries on the southern coast of the country. In Berlin expected the British fleet to pass through the Skagerrak to control the territorial waters of Germany. Therefore, the coast of Norway and Denmark have started to put giant long-range weapons that fire which could block the Strait across its width (116 km at the narrowest point). For the construction of such batteries after the outbreak of war with the Soviet Union used Soviet prisoners of war, for which it was built a lot of camps. This photograph shows work such prisoners on clearing the site for construction. During the Second world war, the Germans built in Norway about 400 fortified artillery batteries. Were in service 1100 guns with a caliber of 10.5 to 40.6 cm in occupied Norway were 377 thousand German soldiers and officers.
Battery of artillery on the banks of Skagerack built in Miike Norwegian and Danish Hanstholm. Construction in Mavica located near, which dates back began in the spring of 1941. In the rocks were cut places for the four artillery pieces of caliber 38 cm built numerous barns, warehouses, built access roads. Worked on the construction site of 750 Norwegians, 350 Danes and 300 Germans. In the winter of 1942-43 to work on the battery brought 200 Russian prisoners of war, who remained here until the end of the war. The contractor for the project was an engineering and construction concern of Fritz Todt.
The guns of this battery was served by 600 German military personnel — 450 persons from Kriegsmarine (naval forces of the Reich) and the 150 people who were responsible for the protection of the Fort.
In addition to the four main guns, the Fort was armed with 16 guns of smaller caliber. All firing points and ammunition depots were connected by tunnels, which in the rocks was built about three kilometers of railway lines.
March 12, 1942 the first two of the four instruments was tested in action of them shots were fired in the direction of the Strait. Another instrument came into operation in November of the same year. C fourth instrument came a hitch — the venue was built, but the gun to the place not reached — in February 1945, the ship “Porto Alegre”, carrying valuable cargo, was sunk by British aircraft in the Kattegat. Same guns as the battery concern “Friedrich Krupp Essen” armed battleships “Bismarck” and “Tirpitz”. Caliber gun model SKC/34 — 38 cm, weight — 337 tons.
This weapon is all that remains of the armament of the Fort at the present day. Battery Vara never participated in the battles of the Second world war. After the war called “Fort Mevik” (Møvik Fort) battery was part of a coast guard of Norway have studied here the Norwegian gunners. 22 times, shot each of the remaining guns in the Fort. The last shot was made in 1952.
In the interior of the battery “Vara” is an exhibition of the military Museum, telling the history of this place.
All the rock under the lighthouse pierced by tunnels and passages, and on the surface are still places where there were guns.
In the autumn the weather here is changing rapidly. Just from a gust from the sea of clouds woke up to heavy rain, and now again the sun shines in the sky and a double rainbow!
In the house where once lived the lighthouse Keeper, now you can stay for the night.
To the left of the old brick lighthouse on a small pedestal is a copy of the old coal-hearth, which in the nineteenth century stood on the lighthouse. There, on Midsummer fires.
Here love Hiking from the southernmost point of the Norwegian land to the North, Cape Nordkapp, which in 2518 km away, which dates back.
Almost 100% of the electricity in Norway is generated by hydropower and wind.
You are in these places, do not drive past, wrap the lighthouse — you will not regret.